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Reward Deficiency Syndrome References

1)   Reward deficiency syndrome: genetic aspects of behavioral disorders. Comings DE, Blum K. Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:325-41.

2)   Reward deficiency syndrome: a biogenetic model for the diagnosis and treatment of impulsive, addictive, and compulsive behaviors. Blum K, Braverman ER, Holder JM, Lubar JF, Monastra VJ, Miller D, Lubar JO, Chen TJ, Comings DE. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2000 Nov;32 Suppl:i-iv, 1-112.

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5)   Addiction and its reward process through polymorphisms of the D2 dopamine receptor gene: a review. Noble EP. Eur Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;15(2):79-89.

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8)   Drug addiction. Part II. Neurobiology of addiction. Vetulani J. Pol J Pharmacol. 2001 Jul-Aug;53(4):303-17.

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11)  Studies of the 48 bp repeat polymorphism of the DRD4 gene in impulsive, compulsive, addictive behaviors: Tourette syndrome, ADHD, pathological gambling, and substance abuse. Comings DE, Gonzalez N, Wu S, Gade R, Muhleman D, Saucier G, Johnson P, Verde R, Rosenthal RJ, Lesieur HR, Rugle LJ, Miller WB, MacMurray JP. Am J Med Genet. 1999 Aug 20;88(4):358-68.

12)  Role for dopamine in the behavioral functions of the prefrontal corticostriatal system: implications for mental disorders and psychotropic drug action. Jentsch JD, Roth RH, Taylor JR. Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:433-53.

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18)  Polymorphisms in genes involved in neurotransmission in relation to smoking. Arinami T, Ishiguro H, Onaivi ES. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Dec 27;410(2-3):215-226.

19)  Low level of brain dopamine D2 receptors in methamphetamine abusers: association with metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex. Volkow ND, Chang L, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Ding YS, Sedler M, Logan J, Franceschi D, Gatley J, Hitzemann R, Gifford A, Wong C, Pappas N. Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;158(12):2015-21.

20)  Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. Volkow ND, Fowler JS. Cereb Cortex. 2000 Mar;10(3):318-25.

21)  Activity patterns in mesolimbic regions in rats during operant tasks for reward. Woodward DJ, Chang JY, Janak P, Azarov A, Anstrom K. Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:303-22.

22)  Drugs of abuse and the brain. Leshner AI, Koob GF. Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1999 Mar-Apr;111(2):99-108.

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24)  Abused inhalants and central reward pathways: electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the rat. Riegel AC, French ED. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun;965:281-91.

25)  Altered accumbens neural response to prediction of reward associated with place in dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice. Tran AH, Tamura R, Uwano T, Kobayashi T, Katsuki M, Matsumoto G, Ono T. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jun 25;99(13):8986-91.

26)  Cocaine, reward, movement and monoamine transporters. Uhl GR, Hall FS, Sora I. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(1):21-6.

27)  The genetics of addiction: alcohol-dependence and D3 dopamine receptor gene. Gorwood P, Limosin F, Batel P, Duaux E, Gouya L, Ades J. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2001 Nov;49(9):710-7.

28)  The dopamine hypothesis of reward: past and current status. Spanagel R, Weiss F. Trends Neurosci. 1999 Nov;22(11):521-7.

29)  Impulsivity resulting from frontostriatal dysfunction in drug abuse: implications for the control of behavior by reward-related stimuli. Jentsch JD, Taylor JR. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Oct;146(4):373-90.

30)  Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Sullivan MA, Rudnik-Levin F. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;931:251-70.

31)  There is more to dopamine than just pleasure. Commentary on Volkow et al. 'Role of dopamine in drug reinforcement and addiction in humans: results from imaging studies'. Lingford-Hughes A. Behav Pharmacol. 2002 Sep;13(5-6):367-70.

32)  Reward signaling by dopamine neurons. Schultz W. Neuroscientist. 2001 Aug;7(4):293-302.

33)  Alpha1b-adrenergic receptors control locomotor and rewarding effects of psychostimulants and opiates. Drouin C, Darracq L, Trovero F, Blanc G, Glowinski J, Cotecchia S, Tassin JP. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 1;22(7):2873-84.

34)  Experimental genetic approaches to addiction. Laakso A, Mohn AR, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG. Neuron. 2002 Oct 10;36(2):213-28.

35)  Behavioral neurobiology of alcohol addiction: recent advances and challenges. Weiss F, Porrino LJ. J Neurosci. 2002 May 1;22(9):3332-7.

36)  Toward a molecular understanding of psychostimulant actions using genetically engineered dopamine receptor knockout mice as model systems. Zhang J, Xu M. J Addict Dis. 2001;20(3):7-18.

37)  Alcohol, the reward system and dependence. Koob GF, Rassnick S, Heinrichs S, Weiss F. EXS. 1994;71:103-14.

38)  Dopaminergic dysfunction in alcoholism and schizophrenia--psychopathological and behavioral correlates. Heinz A. Eur Psychiatry. 2002 Mar;17(1):9-16.

39)  Personality and risk-taking: common biosocial factors. Zuckerman M, Kuhlman DM. J Pers. 2000 Dec;68(6):999-1029.

40)  Dopamine D1 receptor protein is elevated in nucleus accumbens of human, chronic methamphetamine users. Worsley JN, Moszczynska A, Falardeau P, Kalasinsky KS, Schmunk G, Guttman M, Furukawa Y, Ang L, Adams V, Reiber G, Anthony RA, Wickham D, Kish SJ. Mol Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;5(6):664-72.

41)  Role of cannabinoid receptor in the brain as it relates to drug reward. Yamamoto T, Takada K. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;84(3):229-36.

42)  Interactions between medial prefrontal cortex and meso-limbic components of brain reward circuitry. Wise RA. Prog Brain Res. 2000;126:255-62.

43)  5-HT(6) receptor antagonism potentiates the behavioral and neurochemical effects of amphetamine but not cocaine. Frantz KJ, Hansson KJ, Stouffer DG, Parsons LH. Neuropharmacology. 2002 Feb;42(2):170-80.

44)  Pathological gamblers, with and without substance use disorders, discount delayed rewards at high rates. Petry NM. J Abnorm Psychol. 2001 Aug;110(3):482-7.

45)  The A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor gene is associated with high dopamine transporter density in detoxified alcoholics. Laine TP, Ahonen A, Rasanen P, Pohjalainen T, Tiihonen J, Hietala J. Alcohol Alcohol. 2001 May-Jun;36(3):262-5.

46)  Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Feb;24(2):97-129.

47)  The D3 dopamine receptor and substance dependence. Richtand NM, Goldsmith RJ, Nolan JE, Berger SP. J Addict Dis. 2001;20(3):19-32.

48)  Relapse to cocaine- and heroin-seeking behavior mediated by dopamine D2 receptors is time-dependent and associated with behavioral sensitization. De Vries TJ, Schoffelmeer AN, Binnekade R, Raaso H, Vanderschuren LJ. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Jan;26(1):18-26.

49)  Amygdala regulation of nucleus accumbens dopamine output is governed by the prefrontal cortex. Jackson ME, Moghaddam B. J Neurosci. 2001 Jan 15;21(2):676-81.

50)  Genetic factors in drug abuse and dependence. Comings DE. NIDA Res Monogr. 1996;159:16-38; discussion 39-48.

51)  Psychopathological correlates of reduced dopamine receptor sensitivity in depression, schizophrenia, and opiate and alcohol dependence. Schmidt K, Nolte-Zenker B, Patzer J, Bauer M, Schmidt LG, Heinz A. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001 Mar;34(2):66-72.

52)  1st Conference on Reward Deficiency Syndrome: Genetic Antecedents and Clinical Pathways. San Francisco, California, USA. November 12-13, 2000. Abstracts. [No authors listed] Mol Psychiatry. 2001 Feb;6(1 Suppl 1):S1-8.

53)  Psychogenomics: opportunities for understanding addiction. Nestler EJ. J Neurosci. 2001 Nov 1;21(21):8324-7.

54)  Allelic association analysis of the dopamine D2, D3, 5-HT2A, and GABA(A)gamma2 receptors and serotonin transporter genes with heroin abuse in Chinese subjects. Li T, Liu X, Zhao J, Hu X, Ball DM, Loh el-W, Sham PC, Collier DA. Am J Med Genet. 2002 Apr 8;114(3):329-35.

55)  Augmentation of drug reward by chronic food restriction: behavioral evidence and underlying mechanisms. Carr KD. Physiol Behav. 2002 Jul;76(3):353-64.

56)  Reward mechanisms in the brain and their role in dependence: evidence from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies. Martin-Soelch C, Leenders KL, Chevalley AF, Missimer J, Kunig G, Magyar S, Mino A, Schultz W. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2001 Oct;36(2-3):139-49.

57)  Of human bondage: food craving, obsession, compulsion, and addiction. Pelchat ML. Physiol Behav. 2002 Jul;76(3):347-52.

58)  Conditioned place preference for cocaine is attenuated in mice over-expressing the 5-HT(3) receptor. Allan AM, Galindo R, Chynoweth J, Engel SR, Savage DD. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001 Oct;158(1):18-27.

59)  A functional polymorphism within the mu-opioid receptor gene and risk for abuse of alcohol and other substances. Schinka JA, Town T, Abdullah L, Crawford FC, Ordorica PI, Francis E, Hughes P, Graves AB, Mortimer JA, Mullan M. Mol Psychiatry. 2002;7(2):224-8.

60)  Addiction and withdrawal--current views. Melichar JK, Daglish MR, Nutt DJ. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;1(1):84-90.

61)  Polymorphisms in dopamine receptors: what do they tell us? Wong AH, Buckle CE, Van Tol HH. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Dec 27;410(2-3):183-203.

62)  Genetic analysis of the mu-opioid receptor in alcohol-dependent individuals. Rommelspacher H, Smolka M, Schmidt LG, Samochowiec J, Hoehe MR. Alcohol. 2001 Jun;24(2):129-35.

63)  P3 event-related potential, dopamine D2 receptor A1 allele, and sensation-seeking in adult children of alcoholics. Ratsma JE, van der Stelt O, Schoffelmeer AN, Westerveld And A, Boudewijn Gunning W. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Jul;25(7):960-7.

64)  Psychostimulant-induced behavioral sensitization depends on nicotinic receptor activation. Schoffelmeer AN, De Vries TJ, Wardeh G, van de Ven HW, Vanderschuren LJ. J Neurosci. 2002 Apr 15;22(8):3269-76.

65)  Stimulation of endorphin neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens by ethanol, cocaine, and amphetamine. Olive MF, Koenig HN, Nannini MA, Hodge CW. J Neurosci. 2001 Dec 1;21(23):RC184.

66)  Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) is associated with Novelty Seeking (NS) and substance abuse: the saga continues... Lusher JM, Chandler C, Ball D. Mol Psychiatry. 2001 Sep;6(5):497-9.

67)  Neurochemical individuality: genetic diversity among human dopamine and serotonin receptors and transporters. Cravchik A, Goldman D. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2000 Dec;57(12):1105-14.

68)  'Behavioral' addictions: do they exist? Holden C. Science. 2001 Nov 2;294(5544):980-2.

69)  Cocaine dependence: a disease of the brain's reward centers. Dackis CA, O'Brien CP. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2001 Oct;21(3):111-7.

70)  Functional relationship among medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area in locomotion and reward. Tzschentke TM, Schmidt WJ. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 2000;14(2):131-42.

71)  Pharmacogenetics of alcohol response and alcoholism: the interplay of genes and environmental factors in thresholds for alcoholism. Radel M, Goldman D. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 Apr;29(4 Pt 2):489-94.

72)  Addiction becomes a brain disease. Wise RA. Neuron. 2000 Apr;26(1):27-33.

73)  Molecular mechanisms of cocaine reward: combined dopamine and serotonin transporter knockouts eliminate cocaine place preference. Sora I, Hall FS, Andrews AM, Itokawa M, Li XF, Wei HB, Wichems C, Lesch KP, Murphy DL, Uhl GR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 24;98(9):5300-5.

74)  The association study of DRD2, ACE and AGT gene polymorphisms and metamphetamine dependence. Sery O, Vojtova V, Zvolsky P. Physiol Res. 2001;50(1):43-50.

75)  Genetic polymorphisms of the promoter region of dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter genes and alcoholism among four aboriginal groups and Han Chinese in Taiwan. Chen WJ, Chen CH, Huang J, Hsu YP, Seow SV, Chen CC, Cheng AT. Psychiatr Genet. 2001 Dec;11(4):187-95.

76)  Cocaine and amphetamine increase extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of mice lacking the dopamine transporter gene. Carboni E, Spielewoy C, Vacca C, Nosten-Bertrand M, Giros B, Di Chiara G. J Neurosci. 2001 May 1;21(9):RC141: 1-4.

77)  GABA(A) receptors in the ventral tegmental area control bidirectional reward signalling between dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neural motivational systems. Laviolette SR, van der Kooy D. Eur J Neurosci. 2001 Mar;13(5):1009-15.

78)  Neurotransmitter and drug receptor genes. Uhl GR. NIDA Res Monogr. 1992;126:14-22.

79)  Dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) is associated with alcoholism with conduct disorder. Lu RB, Lee JF, Ko HC, Lin WW. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 Feb;25(2):177-84.

80)  Neuronal nicotinic receptors: from structure to function. Leonard S, Bertrand D. Nicotine Tob Res. 2001 Aug;3(3):203-23.

81)  Neurotransmitter system interactions revealed by drug-induced changes in motivated behavior. Montgomery AM, Grottick AJ. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1999 Apr;62(4):643-57.

82)  An approach to drug abuse, intoxication and withdrawal. Giannini AJ. Am Fam Physician. 2000 May 1;61(9):2763-74.

83)  Supersensitivity and dependence on cocaine. Collier HO. Nature. 1968 Dec 28;220(174):1327-8.

84)  Molecular genetics of alcoholism and other addiction/compulsive disorders. General discussion. Conneally PM, Sparkes RS. Alcohol. 1998 Jul;16(1):85-91.

85)  Molecular mechanisms of the brain reward system. [No authors listed] NIDA Res Monogr. 1996;162:34-6.

86)  Genes, drugs and behavior: polygenic behavioral phenotypes and single gene manipulations. Miczek KA, Caine SB. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Nov 5;147(1):1.

87)  Reward deficiency syndrome in obesity: a preliminary cross-sectional trial with a Genotrim variant.Blum K, Chen TJ, Meshkin B, Downs BW, Gordon CA, Blum S, Mengucci JF, Braverman ER, Arcuri V, Varshavskiy M, Deutsch R, Martinez-Pons M. Adv Ther. 2006. Nov-Dec;23(6):1040-51.

88)  Genotrim, a DNA-customized nutrigenomic product, targets genetic factors of obesity: hypothesizing a dopamine-glucose correlation demonstrating reward deficiency syndrome (RDS).Blum K, Chen TJ, Meshkin B, Downs BW, Gordon CA, Blum S, Mangucci JF, Braverman ER, Arcuri V, Deutsch R, Pons MM. Med Hypotheses. 2007;68(4):844-52.

89)  Relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission, alcoholism, and Reward Deficiency syndrome. Bowirrat A, Oscar-Berman M. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2005 Jan 5;132(1):29-37.

90)  Nicotine-induced antinociception, rewarding effects, and physical dependence are decreased in mice lacking the preproenkephalin gene. Berrendero F, Mendizábal V, Robledo P, Galeote L, Bilkei-Gorzo A, Zimmer A, Maldonado R. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 2;25(5):1103-12.

91)  Hypothesis: Parkinson's disease, reward deficiency syndrome and addictive effects of levodopa. Linazaroso G, van Blercom N, Lasa A. Neurologia. 2004 Apr;19(3):117-27.

92)  The A1 allele of the DRD2 gene (TaqI A polymorphisms) is associated with antisocial personality in a sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Ponce G, Jimenez-Arriero MA, Rubio G, Hoenicka J, Ampuero I, Ramos JA, Palomo T. Eur Psychiatry. 2003 Nov;18(7):356-60.

93) Cluster analysis of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: clinical and genetic correlates. Lochner C, Hemmings SM, Kinnear CJ, Niehaus DJ, Nel DG, Corfield VA, Moolman-Smook JC, Seedat S, Stein DJ. Compr Psychiatry. 2005 Jan-Feb;46(1):14-9.

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