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Auriculotherapy Scientific References

1)   Report on 2nd WHO regional working group on the standardisation of auricular acupuncture nomenclature. World Health Organisation. (1985) Hong Kong: WHO.

2)   Report on 3rd WHO regional working group on the standardisation of auricular acupuncture nomenclature. World Health Organisation. (1987) Seoul, Korea: WHO.

3)   Report on the WHO working group meeting on auricular acupuncture nomenclature. World Health Organisation. (1990) Lyon, France: WHO.

4)   WHO and the development of acupuncture nomenclature: Overcoming a Tower of Babel. Akerele, O. (1991) Am. J. Chin. Med. 1: 89-94.

5)   WHO adopts standard international acupuncture nomenclature. Helms, J. (1990) AAMA Review 2: 33.

6)   The clinical practice of scientific auricular acupuncture. Kalamazoo, MI: Bahr, F. (1977) The German Academy of Auricular Medicine.

7)   The micro-acupuncture systems, part I. Dale, R. (1976) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 4: 7-24.

8)   The micro-acupuncture systems, part II. Dale, R. (1976) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 4: 196-224.

9)   The micro-acupuncture meridians. Dale, R. (1985) Intl. J. Chin. Med. 2: 31-49.

10)  Acupuncture meridians and the homunculus principle. Dale, R. (1991) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 19: 73-75.

11)  Projections of different parts of the body on the surface of the concha auriculae in humans and animals. Kvirchishvili, V. (1974) Amer. J. Acupuncture, 2: 208.

12)  Auriculotherapy Manual: Chinese and Western Systems of Ear Acupuncture, 2nd edition. Oleson, T. (1998) Health care alternatives, Los Angeles, California.

13)  International handbook of ear reflex points. Oleson, T. (1995) Health care alternatives: Los Angeles, California.

14)  A project of standardisation of auricular acupoints. Zhou, L. (1988) J. of Trad. Chin. Med.

15)  Supplements to a project of standardisation of auricular acupoints. Zhou, L. (1992) J. of Trad. Chin. Med.

16)  A comparison of Chinese and Nogier auricuar acupuncture points. Oleson, T., Kroening, R. (1983) Am. J. Acupuncture. 11: 205-223.

17)  A new nomenclature for identifying Chinese and Nogier acupuncture points. Oleson, T., Kroening, R. (1983) Am. J. Acupuncture. 12: 325-344.

18)  Modern Techniques of acupuncture: A practical scientific guide to electroacupuncture. Kenyon, J. (1983) Great Britain: Thorsons.

19)  A complete textbook of auricular acupuncture. Lu, H. (1975) Vancouver, B.C. Canada: Academy of Oriental Heritage.

20)  The fundamentals of ear acupuncture. 2nd revised edition. Kropej, H. (1984) Heidelberg. Germany: Karl F. Haug Verlag Gmbh.

21)  Effects of unilateral and bilateral auricular transcutaneous electrical stimulation on cutaneous pain threshold. Krause, A., Clelland, J., Knowles, C., Jackson, J. (1987) Physical Therapy. 67: 507-511.

22)  Elevation of pain threshold to tooth shock by brain stimulation in primates. Oleson, T., Kirkpatrick, D., Goodman, S. (1980) Brain Res. 194: 79-95.

23)  Beta-endorphin and electroacupuncture. Abbate, D., Santamaria, A., Brambilla, A., Paneri, R., Di Guiulio, A. (1983) Lancet 16: 13-31.

24)  Alterations in rat central nervous system endorphins following transauricular electroacupuncture. Pert, A., Dionne, R., Ng, L., Bragin, E., Moody, T. W., Pert, C. B. (1981) Brain Research. 224: 83-93.

25)  Neural mechanisms in acupuncture analgesia. Bossy, J. (1979) Minerva Med. 70: 1705-1715.

26)  Electroacupuncture and endogenous morphines. Sjolund, B., Eriksonn, M. (1976) Lancet. 2: 1085.

27)  Effects of auricular transcutaneous electrical stimulation on experimental pain threshold. Oliveri, A., Clelland, J., Jackson, J. Knowles, C. (1986) Physical Therapy. 66: 12-16.

28)  Alterations in rat central nervous system endorphins following transauricular acupuncture. Ng, L., Dionne, R., Bragin, E., Pert, C., Pert, A., (1981) Brain Res. 224: 83-93.

29)  Naloxone fails to reverse pain thresholds elevated by acupuncture: Acupuncture analgesia reconsidered. Chapman, C., Benedetti, C., Colpitts, Y., Gerlack, R. (1983) Pain. 16: 13-31.

30)  Influence of Naloxone on electro-acupuncture analgesia using an experimental pain test. Ernst, M., Lee, M. (1987) Acupuncture Electrotherapeutics Res. Intl. J. 12: 5-22.

31)  Antagonism of acupuncture analgesia in man by the narcotic antagonist naloxone. Mayer, D., Price, D., Rafii, A. (1977) Brain Res. 121: 368-372.

32)  Acupuncture in heroin addicts: Changes in met-enkephalin and beta-endorphin in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Clement-Jones, V., McLaughlin, L., Lowry, P., Besser, G., Rees, L. Wen, H. (1979) Lancet. 2: 380-382.

33)  Differential release of enkephalin and dynorphin by low and high frequency electro-acupuncture. Han. J. S., Shao, L. S. (1990) Acupuncture. 1: 1-9.

34)  The effect of electrical stimulation of the ear points on the plasma ACTH and GH level in humans. Debreceni, L. (1991) Acupunct Electro-Therap. Res. Intl. J. 16: 45-51.

35)   Acupuncture and Auriculotherapy: A brief clinical review. Blum, K., Braverman, E., Holder, J., Lubar, J. F., Monastra, V., Miller, D., Lubar, J. O., Chen, T., Comings, D. (2000) J. of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol 32 Supplement: 55-57.

36)  Auriculotherapy with magnetic pellets produces longitudinal changes in sleep patterns of elderly patients with insomnia. Suen LK, Wong EM. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Apr;13(3):306-7.

37)  Electroacupuncture: An alternative to antidepresnats for treatment of affective diseases? Han, J. (1985) Intl. J. of Neuroscience. (29): 79-82.

38)  Addictions and Acupuncture: The treatment methods, formulae, effectiveness and limitations. Dale, R. (1993) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 21: 247-266.

39)  Pinpointing Addiction. Holder, J. (1992) Spotlight. 8: 33-34.

40)  Beating Addiction: From bondage to freedom. Holder, J. (1999, May) Alternative Medicine. 37-40.

41)  Hearing before a subcommittee of the appropriateness United Sates Senate. 103rd Congress, first session. (1993) Acupuncture in the treatment of chemical dependency. US Govt Printing Office.

42)  Increasing retention rates among the chemically dependent in residential treatment: Auriculotherapy and Subluxation-based Chiropractic care. Holder, J. M., Duncan, R. C., Gissen, M., Miller, M., Blum, K. (2001, February) Molecular Psychiatry. Vol 6, Suppl. 1, Part 2 Abstracts.

43)  Acupuncture as a detoxification treatment: An analysis of controlled research. Brewington, V., Smith, M., Lipton, D. J. of Substance Abuse Treatment. 11: 289-307.

44)  Acupuncture treatment of withdrawal symptoms. Leung, A. (1977) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 5: 43-50.

45)  The end to addictions. Leviton, R. (1995) Alternative Med. Digest. 7: 14-20.

46)  Acupuncture and healing in drug detoxification. Smith, M. (1979) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 7: 97-107.

47)  Creating a substance abuse treatment program incorporating acupuncture. Smith, M. (1990) AAMA Review. 2: 29-32.

48)  Acupuncture in the treatment of addiction: A review and analysis. Whitehead, P. (1978) Intl. J. of Addictions. 13 (1): 1-16.

49)  A meta-analysis of studies into the effect of acupuncture on addiction. Riet, G., Kleinjnen, P., Knipschild, P. (1990) Br. J. Gen. Pr. 40: 379-382.

50)  Treatment of drug addiction by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Wen, H., Cheung, S. (1973) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 1: 71-75.

51)  Reduction in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in drug addicts treated by acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Wen, H. L., Ho, W. K., Wong, H. K., Mehal, Z. D., Ng, Y. H., Ma, L. (1978) Comparative Med. East and West. 61-66.

52)  Changes in adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels in drug addicts treated by a new and rapid detoxification procedure using acupuncture and naloxone. Wen, H. L., Ho, W. K., Wong, H. K., Mehal, Z. D., Ng, Y. H., Ma, L. (1979) Comparative Med. East and West. 6 (3): 241-245.

53)  Acupuncture and the treatment of drug withdrawal syndromes. Schuckit, M. (1993) Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Newsletter, October Issue.

54)  Guidelines for Drug Detoxification. Smith, D. E. (1977) San Francisco: Haight Ashbury Publications.

55)  An acupuncture programme for the treatment of drug-addicted person. Smith, M. O., Khan, I. (1988) Bulletin on Narcotics. 40 (1): 35-41.

56)  Is auricular acupuncture beneficial in the inpatient treatment of substance-abusing patients? A pilot study. Gurevich, M. I., Duckworth, D., Imhof, J. E., Katz. J. L., (1996) J. of Substance Abuse Treatment. 13 (2): 165-171.

57)  A meta-analysis of studies into the effect of acupuncture on addiction. Ter Riet, G., Kleijnen, J., Knipschild, P. (1990) British J. of General Practice. 40 (338): 379-382.

58)  Acupuncture treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse. Smith, M., Squires, R., Aponte, J., Rabinowitz, N., Regina, S. (1982) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 10: 161-163.

59)  Electro-acupuncture in alcohol and drug addictions. Patterson, M. A. (1974) Clinical Medicine. Oct: 9-13.

60)  Acupuncture as a common mode of treatment for drug dependence: Possible neurochemical mechanisms. Blum, K., Newmeyer, J. A., Whitehead, C. (1978) J. of Psychedelic Drugs. 10 (2): 105-15.

61)  Acupuncture procedure for treating drug addiction. Kao, A. H., Lu, L. Y. C. (1974) American J. of Acupuncture. (2): 201-207.

62)  Acupuncture and addiction: An overview. Lau, M. P. (1976) Addictive Diseases. (2): 449-463.

63)  Clinical experience and mechanisms of acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) in combination with Naloxone. Wen, H. L. (1980) Comp. Med. East-West. 5: 257-263.

64)  Experience in the treatment of drug addiction by electroacupuncture. Wen. H. L., Teo, S. W. (1974) Modern Med. of Asia. 11: 23-24.

65)  Acupuncture treatment and withdrawal symptoms. Leung, A. J. H. (1977) American J. of Acupuncture. (5): 43-50.

66)  Acupuncture as a detoxification modality. Newmeyer, J. A., Johnson, G., Klot, S. (1984) J. of Psychoactive Drugs. 16 (3): 241-261.

67)  Drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking, obesity treated by auricular staplepuncture. Sacks, L. (1975) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 3: 147-150.

68)  A randomised controlled trial or auricular acupuncture for cocaine dependence. Avants, S. K., Margolin, A., Holford, T. R., Kosten, T. R. (2000) Archives of Internal Medicine. 160: 2305-12.

69)  Auricular Acupuncture as an adjunctive treatment for cocaine addiction. A pilot study. Otto, K. C., Quinn, C., Sung, Y. F. (1998) American J. on Addictions. 7 (2): 164-170.

70)  Effects of sham and real auricular needling: Implications for trials of acupuncture for cocaine addiction. Margolin, A., Chang, P., Avants, S. K., Kosten, T. R. (1993) American J. of Chinese Medicine. 21 (2): 103-111.

71)  Rationale and design of the Cocaine Alternative Treatments Study (CATS): A randomised, controlled trial of acupuncture. Margolin, A., Avants, S. K., Kleber, H. D. (1998) J. of Alternative and Comp. Med. 4 (4): 405-418.

72)  Acupuncture in methadone withdrawal. Man, P., Chuang, M. (1980) Int. J. of Addictions. 15 (6): 921-926.

73)  Acupuncture for the treatment of cocaine dependence in methadone-maintained patients. Margolin, A., Avants, S., Chung, P., Kosten, T. (1993) Am. J. Addictions. 2: 194-201.

74)  Auricular Acupuncture in the treatment of cocaine abuse. A study of efficacy and dosing. Bullock, M. L., Kiresuk, T. J., Pheley, A. M., Culliton, P.D., Lenz, S. K. (1999) J. of Substance Abuse Treatment. 16 (1): 31-38.

75)  Effects of sham and real auricular needling: Implications for trials of acupuncture for cocaine addiction. Margolin, A., Chung, P., Avants, S., Kosten, T. (1993) Am. J. Chinese Med. 221: 191-197.

76)  Heroin detoxification with acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Severson, L., Markoff, R., Chun-Hoon, A. (1977) Intl. J. Addictions. 12: 911-922.

77)  Acupuncture heroin detoxification: A single-blind clinical trial. Washburn, A. M., Fullilove, R. E., Fullilove, M. T., Keenan, P. A., McGee, B., Morris, K. A., Sorensen, J. L., Clark, W. W. (1993) J. of Substance Abuse Treatment. 10 (4): 345-351.

78)  Fast detoxification of heroin addicts by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) in combination with Naloxone. Wen, H. L. (1977) Comparative Med. East and west. 5 (3-4): 257-263.

79)  Outpatient heroin detoxification with acupuncture and staplepuncture. Tennant, F. S. Jr. (1976) Western J. of Med. 125 (3): 191-194.

80)  Acupuncture in heroin addicts: Changes in metenkephalin and beta-endorphin in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Clement-Jones, V., McLoughlin, L., Lowry, P. J., Besser, G. M., Rees, L. H., Wen, H. L. (1979) Lancet 2 (8139): 380-383.

81)  Experience with detoxification and weaning of heroin addicts by means of acupuncture, gabergic drugs and psychopharmacologic agents in low doses. Cocchi, R., Lorini, G., Fusari, A., Carrossino, R. (1979) Minerva Med. 70 (24): 1735-1744.

82)  The influence of electro-acupuncture on naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal: Elevation of immuno-assayable beta-endorphin activity in the brain but not the blood. Wen, H. L., Wo, W. K., Ling, M., Ma, L., Choa, G. H. (1979) American J. of Chinese Med. 7 (3): 237-240.

83)  Effect of electroacupuncture on behavioural responses and plasma levels of ACTH and TSH in naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal in rats. Fung, K. P., Choa, G. H., Choy, Y. M., Lee, C. Y., Leung, K. C., Tsang, D., Tso, W. W., Wen, H. L. (1980) American J. of Chinese Med. 8 (1-2): 167-169.

84)  Electroacupuncture treatment of morphine-dependent mice reduces signs of withdrawal, without showing cross-tolerance. Cheng, R. S., Pomeranz, B., Yu, G. (1980) European J. of Pharamacol. 68 (4): 477-481.

85)  Modification of morphine-withdrawal syndrome in rats following transauricular electrostimulation: An experimental paradigm for auricular electroacupuncture. Ng, L. K., Donthill, T. C., Thoa, N. B., Albert, C.A. (1975) Biological Psychiatry. 10 (5): 575-580.

86)  Experimental “auricular electroacupuncture” in morphine dependent rats: Behavioural and biochemical observations. Ng, L. K., Thoa, N. B., Donthill, T. C., Albert, C.A. (1975). American J. of Chinese Med. 3: 335-341.

87)  Evaluation on the treatment of morphine addiction by acupuncture, chinese herbs, and opioid peptides. Yang, M. M., Kwok, J. S. (1986) Am. J. Chin. Med. 14 (1-2): 46-50.

88)  Acupuncture treatment for crack: Clinical survey of 1,500 patients treated. Smith, M. (1988) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 16: 241-247.

89)  Acupuncture for crack-cocaine detoxification: Experimental evaluation of efficacy. Lipton, D. S., Brewington, V., Smith, M. (1994) J. of Substance Abuse Treatment. 11 (3): 205-215.

90)  Effectiveness of adjunct therapies in crack cocaine treatment. Richard, A. J., Montoya, I. D., Nelson, R., Spence, R. T. (1995) J. of Substance Abuse Treatment. 12 (6): 401-413.

91)  Fast detoxification of drug abuse by acupuncture and electrical stimulation (AES) in combination with Naloxone. Wen, H. (1977) Mod. Med. Asia. 13: 13-17.

92)  The role of acupuncture in narcotic withdrawal. Wen, H. L. (1975, May) Medical Progress. 15-16.

93)  Rapid narcotic detoxification in chronic pain patients treated with auricular elecroacupuncture and naloxone. Kroening, R., Oleson, T. (1985) Intl. J. of Addictions. 20 (9): 1347-1360.

94)  Acupuncture treatment of alcoholic recidivism: A pilot study. Alcoholism: Bullock, M. L., Umen, A. J., Culiton, P. D., Olander, R. T. (1987) Clin. And Experimental Research. 11 (3): 292-295.

95)  Controlled trial of acupuncture for severe recidivist alcoholism. Bullock, M., Culliton, P., Olander, R. (1989) Lancet 1 (8652): 1435-1439.

96)  Electroacupuncture and antidepressant treatment of alcoholism in a private practice. Lewenberg, A. (1985) Clinical Therapeutics. 7 (5): 611-617.

97)  Acupuncture fails to improve treatment outcome in alcoholics. Worner, T. M., Zeller, B., Scwartz, H., Zwas, F., Lyon, D. (1992) Drug and Alcoholic Dependence. 30 (2): 169-173.

98)  Treatment of cigarette smoking by auricular acupuncture: A report of 184 cases. Chen, J. (1979) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 7: 229-234.

99)  Auricular acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. Gilbey, V., Neumann, B. (1979) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 5: 239-247.

100) Increased success rate using new acupuncture point for stop-smoking program. Olms, J. (1984) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 12: 339-344.

101) Smoking withdrawal therapy by acupuncture. Regrena, Y., Fabre, M., Pernice, C., Nguyen, J. (1980) Amer. J. Acupuncture. 8: 57-63.

102) Smoking withdrawal and acupuncture. Fuller, J. A. (1982) Med. J. of Australia. 1 (1): 28-29.

103) Effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation or reduction for motivated smokers. He, D., Berg, J. E., Hostmark, A. T. (1997) Preventive Medicine. 26 (2): 208-214.

104) Analysis of therapeutic effects of acupuncture on abstinence from smoking. Jiang, A., Cui, M. (1994) J. of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 14 (1): 56-63.

105) Acupuncture for smokers: Lack of long-term therapeutic effect in a controlled study. Lamontagne, Y., Annable, L., Gagnon, M. A. (1980) Canadian Med. Assoc. J. 122 (7): 787-790.

106) The efficacy of acupuncture as an aid to stoppping smoking. Martin, G. P., Waite, P. M. (1981) New Zealand Med. J. 93 (686): 421-423.

107) Acupuncture therapy for the treatment of tobacco smoking addiction. Steiner, R. P., Hay, D. L., Davis, A. W. (1982) American J. of Chinese Med. 10 (1-4): 107-121.

108) Laseracupuncture reduces cigarette smoking: A preliminary report. Zalesskiy, V. N., Belousova, I. A., Frolov, G. V. (1993) Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research. 8 (3-4): 297-302.

109) The effectiveness of low-calorie diet or diet with acupuncture treatment in obese peri- and postmenopausal women. Woźniak P, Oszukowski P, Stachowiak G, Szyłło K. Ginekol Pol. 2003 Feb;74(2):102-7.

110) Role of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Personal experience. Sakka F. Tunis Med. 2002 Apr;80(4):217-9.

111) Smoking cessation with ear acupuncture. Descriptive study on patients after a smoking cessation treatment with ear acupuncture. Ausfeld-Hafter B, Marti F, Hoffmann S. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2004 Feb;11(1):8-13.

112) Auricular acupuncture, education, and smoking cessation: a randomized, sham-controlled trial. Bier ID, Wilson J, Studt P, Shakleton M. Am J Public Health. 2002 Oct;92(10):1642-7.

113) The effects of the acupuncture treatment for smoking cessation in high school student smokers. Kang HC, Shin KK, Kim KK, Youn BB. Yonsei Med J. 2005 Apr 30;46(2):206-12.

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