Archive for the ‘Main Content’ Category

THE MOST UP TO DATE POSTURE RESEARCH

Thursday, January 31st, 2013

 

It’s been a while since I have done a review of research relevant to good and bad posture. And in that time some things have changed – the most noticeable is that if you look closely in the following papers you should notice that digital photography and the objective measurements possible as a result are a key feature. Now I don’t hate to tell you that “I told you so” – but I have been pushing the use of digital postural analysis since about 1996!

The other clear point from the following abbreviated abstracts is just how powerful postural analysis is as an outcome tool, and a predictor of morbidity. If you are not incorporating objective postural analysis and including corrective strategies that work in your practice – then WHY NOT?

Check out the world’s best postural analysis software at this link: www.torquerelease.com.au/Posture-Pro-Software.htm

 

1) Sensitivity of clinical assessments of sagittal head posture.

J Eval Clin Pract. 2010 Feb;16(1):141-4. Gadotti IC, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA.

Historically, clinicians visually evaluate posture using anatomical landmarks. Advances in technology made digital photographs now feasible to use in clinical practice. Photogrammetry may increase the reliability of the assessment of postural changes. However, differences between visually estimated and photogrammetric recorded changes in posture need to be tested. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of visual assessments of changes in head posture in the sagittal plane in relation to photogrammetric recorded data… Visual assessments of sagittal head posture were sensitive to detect differences between no FHP and FHP groups, but were not sensitive to detect differences between no FHP and slight FHP groups. Head posture photogrammetry is recommended to quantitatively detect less evident differences in head posture.

 

2) Differences in Standing and Sitting Postures of Youth with Idiopathic Scoliosis from Quantitative Analysis of Digital Photographs.

Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2013 Jan 8. Fortin C, Ehrmann Feldman D, Cheriet F, Labelle H.

The objective of this study was to explore whether differences in standing and sitting postures of youth with idiopathic scoliosis could be detected from quantitative analysis of digital photographs. Standing and sitting postures of 50 participants aged 10-20-years-old with idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle: 15° to 60°) were assessed from digital photographs using a posture evaluation software program… Significant differences between standing and sitting positions (p < 0.05) were found for head protraction, shoulder elevation, scapula asymmetry, trunk list, scoliosis angle, waist angles, and frontal and sagittal plane pelvic tilt. Quantitative analysis of digital photographs is a clinically feasible method to measure standing and sitting postures among youth with scoliosis and to assist in decisions on therapeutic interventions.

 

3) Trunk deformity is associated with a reduction in outdoor activities of daily living and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older people.

Osteoporos Int. 2005 Mar;16(3):273-9. Takahashi T, Ishida K, Hirose D, Nagano Y, Okumiya K, Nishinaga M, Matsubayashi K, Doi Y, Tani T, Yamamoto H.

We have evaluated the association between trunk deformities of the sagittal plane and functional impairment of daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The analysis involved a detailed assessment of indoor and outdoor activities of daily living, satisfaction with life, and mental status. The participants in this study were 236 community-dwelling older adults, aged 65 years and older, living in Kahoku district of Kochi in Japan. The participants were classified based on their posture, which was assessed using photographs of the subjects, and interviewed to assess their basic activities of daily living (BADL), instrumental ADL (IADL), and cognitive well-being in the cross-sectional study… The lumbar kyphosis group received significantly lower BADL and IADL scores than the normal group. The trunk deformity group which were defined as kyphosis, flat back, and lumbar lordosis groups exhibited decreases in activities that included going out, shopping, depositing and withdrawing money, and visiting friends in the hospital. These activities require going outdoors; thus, this study showed that the trunk deformity group had limitations in outdoor activities… The abnormal trunk deformity groups tended to score lower than the normal group with regard to subjective healthiness and life satisfaction measures, including subjective health condition, everyday feeling, satisfaction with human relationships, satisfaction with economic condition, and satisfaction with present life.

 

4) Video analysis of sagittal spinal posture in healthy and young adults

Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. Volume 32, Number 3, 2009;32:210-215. Yi-Liang Kuo, Elizabeth A. Tully, PhD, and Mary P. Galea, PhD

Changes in posture are of concern because of their association with pain or impaired physical function… Compared to young adults, healthy older adults demonstrated a forward head posture, with increased lower cervical spine flexion and increased upper cervical extension in both positions. Older adults also sat with significantly increased thoracic kyphosis and decreased lumbar spine flexion… The angular relationship between adjacent spinal regions in the sagittal plane can be objectively quantified using image-based analysis. The concept that the anteroposterior tilt of the pelvis in standing dictates the lumbar and thoracic curves was supported by the correlations between these adjacent regions in both age groups. The model of skin marker placement used in this study can have a broader application as a clinical tool for image-based postural assessment.

 

5) Reliability of a quantitative clinical posture assessment tool among persons with idiopathic scoliosis.

Physiotherapy. 2012 Mar;98(1):64-75. Fortin C, Feldman DE, Cheriet F, Gravel D, Gauthier F, Labelle H.

Seventy participants aged between 10 and 20 years with different types of idiopathic scoliosis (Cobb angle 15 to 60°) were recruited from the scoliosis clinic… Based on the XY co-ordinates of natural reference points (e.g., eyes) as well as markers placed on several anatomical landmarks, 32 angular and linear posture indices taken from digital photographs in the standing position were calculated from a specially developed software program… Posture can be assessed in a global fashion from photographs in persons with idiopathic scoliosis. Despite the good reliability of marker placement, other studies are needed to minimise measurement errors in order to provide a suitable tool for monitoring change in posture over time.

 

6) Postural compensations and subjective complaints due to backpack loads and wear time in schoolchildren.

Pediatr Phys Ther. 2013 Spring;25(1):15-24. Kistner F, Fiebert I, Roach K, Moore J.

This study investigated the effects of carrying weighted backpacks of up to 20% of body weight on the posture and pain complaints of elementary-school children. Craniovertebral, forward trunk lean and pelvic tilt angles were measured from sagittal photographs of 62 children (8-11 years old) before and after walking while carrying backpacks containing 10%, 15%, or 20% of body weight. Pain severity after a 6-minute walk with the loaded backpack was recorded. Subjective complaints of pain were assessed using a visual analog scale after walking. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in postural angles and increased complaints of pain after walking with increased backpack loads. These results indicate that typical backpack loads create worsening postural changes due to backpack loads and time spent carrying those loads, putting children at increased risk for injury and pain, the latter of which is a strong predictor for back pain in adulthood.

 

7) Effect of backpack load carriage on cervical posture in primary schoolchildren.

Work. 2012;41(1):99-108. Kistner F, Fiebert I, Roach K.

This study examined the effects of various backpack loads on elementary schoolchildren’s posture and postural compensations as demonstrated by a change in forward head position. Sagittal digital photographs were taken of each subject standing without a backpack, and then with the loaded backpack before and after walking 6 minutes (6MWT) at free walking speed. This was repeated over three consecutive weeks using backpacks containing randomly assigned weights of 10%, 15%, or 20% body weight of each respective subject. The craniovertebral angle (CVA) was measured using digitizing software, recorded and analyzed. Subjects demonstrated immediate and statistically significant changes in CVA, indicating increased forward head positions upon donning the backpacks containing 15% and 20% body weight. Following the 6MWT, the CVA demonstrated further statistically significant changes for all backpack loads indicating increased forward head postures. For the 15 & 20%BW conditions, more than 50% of the subjects reported discomfort after walking, with the neck as the primary location of reported pain.

 

8) Effect of backpack weight on postural angles in preadolescent children.

Indian Pediatr. 2010 Jul;47(7):575-80. Ramprasad M, Alias J, Raghuveer AK.

Carrying heavy backpacks could cause a wide spectrum of pain related musculoskeletal disorders and postural dysfunctions. To determine the changes in various postural angles with different backpack weights in preadolescent children… digitizing software was used for analyzing photographs to determine craniovertebral (CV), head on neck (HON), head and neck on trunk (HNOT), trunk and lower limb angles. Postural angles were compared with no backpack and with backpacks weighing 5% to 25% of the subject’s bodyweight. The CV angle changed significantly after 15% of backpack load (P <0.05). The HON and HNOT angles changed significantly after 10% of backpack load (P <0.05). The trunk and lower limb angle also changed significantly after 5% of backpack load (P <0.05). Carrying a backpack weighing 15% of body weight change all the postural angles in preadolescent children.

 

9) Spinal Posture in the Sagittal Plane Is Associated With Future Dependence in Activities of Daily Living: A Community-Based Cohort Study of Older Adults in Japan.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013 Jan 28. Kamitani K, Michikawa T, Iwasawa S, Eto N, Tanaka T, Takebayashi T, Nishiwaki Y.

Accumulated evidence shows how important spinal posture is for aged populations in maintaining independence in everyday life. However, the cross-sectional designs of most previous studies prevent elucidation of the relationship between spinal posture and future dependence in activities of daily living (ADL). We tried to clarify the association by measuring spinal posture noninvasively in a community-based prospective cohort study of older adults, paying particular attention to thoracic curvature, lumbar curvature, sacral hip angle, and inclination to determine which parameter is most strongly associated with dependence in ADL… This study indicates that spinal inclination is associated with future dependence in ADL among older adults.

 

10) Association of spinal inclination with physical performance measures among community-dwelling Japanese women aged 40 years and older.

Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2012 Dec 26. Abe Y, Aoyagi K, Tsurumoto T, Chen CY, Kanagae M, Mizukami S, Ye Z, Kusano Y.

Spinal inclination assesses spinal posture as a whole. However, the association between spinal inclination and physical performance has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the association of spinal inclination with physical performance measures. The participants were 107 Japanese women aged 40-84 years. Spinal posture was assessed as inclination to a perpendicular line by using a computer-assisted device. Increased inclination value means forward inclination of the spine. Physical performance was measured by using the following methods: 6-m walking time, chair stand time, functional reach, Timed Up & Go Test, and grip strength. Information on participants’ comorbidities, osteoporosis, knee joint pain, back pain, falls in the previous year, regular exercise and usage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was also collected. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed significant associations between spinal inclination and all of the physical performance measures. Pearson’s partial correlation analysis adjusted for age showed significant associations of increased inclination with poor physical functioning in 6-m walking time, chair stand time, functional reach, and Timed Up & Go Test, but not in grip strength. Linear regression analysis adjusted for age, grip strength, number of comorbidities, osteoporosis, knee joint pain, back pain, falls in previous year, regular activity and taking NSAIDs showed that spinal inclination was associated with poor function in 6-m walking time, chair stand time, functional reach and Timed Up & Go Test. Forward spinal inclination was associated with impairment in various physical performance measures. Proper prevention and treatment of underlying disorders should be prompted.

 

11) Importance of posture assessment in ankylosing spondylitis. Preliminary study.

Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2012 Jul-Sep;116(3):780-4. Roşu MO, Ancuţa C, Iordache C, Chirieac R.

The aim of this study is to perform a screening of patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in order to evaluate the static spinal disorders and correlate the results with the main clinical and functional parameters that characterize this disease… The assessment of lumbosacral pain in the morning and daytime lumbosacral pain showed a higher scores in patients suffering from kyphoscoliosis than in those with scoliosis, or kyphosis. Ott and modified Schöber index, and chest expansion, had higher mean values in patients with scoliosis compared with the other postural disorders. Statistically higher mean BASFI values were recorded in patients with kyphoscoliosis, while the mean BASMI values were lower in scoliosis patients. As to the quality of life of AS patients, HAQ-DI index recorded significantly lower mean values for kyphoscoliosis compared with other postural disorders. Our study suggests that posture assessment and implicitly the correction of possible misalignments should be part of the kinetic physical therapy program. Rigorous observing of postural recommendations can prevent the respiratory system complications.

 

12) Effects of thoracic kyphosis and forward head posture on cervical range of motion in older adults.

Man Ther. 2013 Feb;18(1):65-71. Quek J, Pua YH, Clark RA, Bryant AL.

It is unclear how age-related postural changes such as thoracic spine kyphosis influence cervical range-of-motion (ROM) in patients with cervical spine dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating effects of forward head posture (FHP) on the relationship between thoracic kyphosis and cervical mobility in older adults with cervical spine dysfunction. Fifty-one older adults… with cervical spine dysfunction – that is, cervical pain with or without referred pain, numbness or paraesthesia – participated. Pain-related disability was measured using the neck disability index (NDI). Thoracic kyphosis was measured using a flexicurve. FHP was assessed via the craniovertebral angle (CVA) measured from a digitized, lateral-view photograph of each subject. Cervical ROM - namely, upper and general cervical rotation and cervical flexion – was measured by the Cervical Range-of-Motion (CROM) device. Greater thoracic kyphosis was significantly associated with lesser CVA whereas greater CVA was significantly associated with greater cervical flexion and general rotation ROM, but not with upper cervical rotation ROM… Our results show that FHP mediated the relationship between thoracic kyphosis and cervical ROM, specifically general cervical rotation and flexion. These results not only support the justifiable attention given to addressing FHP to improve cervical impairments, but they also suggest that addressing thoracic kyphosis impairments may constitute an “upstream” approach.

 

13) Increased forward head posture and restricted cervical range of motion in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009 Sep;39(9):658-64. De-la-Llave-Rincón AI, Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Palacios-Ceña D, Cleland JA.

To compare the amount of forward head posture (FHP) and cervical range of motion between patients with moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. We also sought to assess the relationships among FHP, cervical range of motion, and clinical variables related to the intensity and temporal profile of pain due to CTS… FHP and cervical range of motion were assessed in 25 women with CTS and 25 matched healthy women. Side-view pictures were taken in both relaxed-sitting and standing positions to measure the craniovertebral angle. A CROM device was used to assess cervical range of motion. Posture and mobility measurements were performed by an experienced therapist blinded to the subjects’ condition… Patients with mild/moderate CTS exhibited a greater FHP and less cervical range of motion, as compared to healthy controls. Additionally, a greater FHP was associated with a reduction in cervical range of motion…

 

14) The role of forward head correction in management of adolescent idiopathic scoliotic patients: a randomized controlled trial.

Clin Rehabil. 2012 Dec;26(12):1123-32. Diab AA.

To investigate the effectiveness of forward head correction on three-dimensional posture parameters and functional level in adolescent idiopathic scoliotic patients… All the patients (n = 76) received traditional treatment in the form of stretching and strengthening exercises. In addition, patients in the study group (n = 38) received a forward head posture corrective exercise programme… Craniovertebral angle, Functional Rating Index and posture parameters, including: lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, trunk inclination, trunk imbalance, lateral deviation, surface rotation and pelvis torsion were measured before treatment, after 10 weeks, and at three-month follow-up… A forward head corrective exercise programme combined with conventional rehabilitation improved three-dimensional scoliotic posture and functional status in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

 

15) The efficacy of forward head correction on nerve root function and pain in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a randomized trial.

Clin Rehabil. 2012 Apr;26(4):351-61. Diab AA, Moustafa IM.

To investigate the effect of forward head posture correction on pain and nerve root function in cases of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy… Ninety-six patients with unilateral lower cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (C5-C6 and C6-C7) and craniovertebral angle measured less than or equal to 50° were randomly assigned to an exercise or a control group… The control group (n = 48) received ultrasound and infrared radiation, whereas the exercise group (n = 48) received a posture corrective exercise programme in addition to ultrasound and infrared radiation… Forward head posture correction using a posture corrective exercise programme in addition to ultrasound and infrared radiation decreased pain and craniovertebral angle and increased the peak-to-peak amplitude of dermatomal somatosensory evoked potentials for C6 and C7 in cases of lower cervical spondylotic radiculopathy.

 

16) The effect of the forward head posture on postural balance in long time computer based worker.

Ann Rehabil Med. 2012 Feb;36(1):98-104. Kang JH, Park RY, Lee SJ, Kim JY, Yoon SR, Jung KI.

To estimate the effects of a relatively protruded head and neck posture on postural balance, in computer based worker… Thirty participants, who work with computers for over 6 hrs per day (Group I), and thirty participants, who rarely work with computers (Group II), were enrolled. The head and neck posture was measured by estimating angles A and B. A being the angle between the tragus of the ear, the lateral canthus of the eye, and horizontal line and B the angle between the C7 spinous process, the tragus of the ear, and the horizontal line. The severity of head protrusion with neck extension was assessed by the subtraction of angle A from angle B. We also measured the center of gravity (COG) and postural balance by using computerized dynamic posturography to determine the effect of computer-based work on postural balance… The results of this study suggest that forward head postures during computer-based work may contribute to some disturbance in the balance of healthy adults. These results could be applied to education programs regarding correct postures when working at a computer for extended periods of time.

 

17) Musculoskeletal dysfunction and pain in adults with asthma.

J Asthma. 2011 Feb;48(1):105-10. Lunardi AC, Marques da Silva CC, Rodrigues Mendes FA, Marques AP, Stelmach R, Fernandes Carvalho CR.

The mechanical alterations related to the overload of respiratory muscles observed in adults with persistent asthma might lead to the development of chronic alterations in posture, musculoskeletal dysfunction and pain; however, these changes remain poorly understood… This study aimed to assess postural alignment, muscle shortening and chronic pain in adults with persistent asthma… In comparison with non-asthmatic subjects, patients with mild or severe persistent asthma held their head and shoulders more forward and had lower chest wall expansion, decreased shoulder internal rotation, and decreased thoracic spine flexibility. Chronic lower thoracic, cervical, and shoulder pain was significantly increased in patients with mild or severe asthma compared with non-asthmatic subjects…

 

18) Head and shoulder alignment among patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

Rev Bras Fisioter. 2010 Jul-Aug;14(4):330-6. Coelho Júnior AN, Gazzola JM, Gabilan YP, Mazzetti KR, Perracini MR, Ganança FF.

To investigate head and shoulder alignment among patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH), using computerized biophotogrammetry (CB) and to correlate these measurements with gender, age, duration of clinical evolution, self-perception of intensity of dizziness and occurrences of falls… The patients with UVH had greater forward and lateral head deviation angles than did the normal individuals, with a statistically significant difference… Forward head was associated with the duration of clinical symptoms of the vestibular disease, age, intensity of dizziness and occurrence of falls.

 

19) Influence of forward head posture on scapular upward rotators during isometric shoulder flexion.

J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2010 Oct;14(4):367-74. Weon JH, Oh JS, Cynn HS, Kim YW, Kwon OY, Yi CH.

We assessed the effects of forward head posture in the sitting position on the activity of the scapular upward rotators during loaded isometric shoulder flexion in the sagittal plane. Healthy volunteers (n = 21; 11 men, 10 women) with no history of pathology participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to perform isometric shoulder flexion with the right upper extremity in both the forward head posture (FHP) and neutral head posture (NHP) while sitting. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles… Significantly increased EMG activity in the upper trapezius and lower trapezius and significantly decreased EMG activity in the serratus anterior were found during loaded isometric shoulder flexion with FHP. Thus, FHP may contribute to work-related neck and shoulder pain during loaded shoulder flexion while sitting. These results suggest that maintaining NHP is advantageous in reducing sustained upper and lower trapezius activity and enhancing serratus anterior activity as compared with FHP during loaded shoulder flexion.

 

20) Head and shoulder posture affect scapular mechanics and muscle activity in overhead tasks.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2010 Aug;20(4):701-9. Thigpen CA, Padua DA, Michener LA, Guskiewicz K, Giuliani C, Keener JD, Stergiou N.

Forward head and rounded shoulder posture (FHRSP) is theorized to contribute to alterations in scapular kinematics and muscle activity leading to the development of shoulder pain. However, reported differences in scapular kinematics and muscle activity in those with forward head and rounded shoulder posture are confounded by the presence of shoulder pain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare scapular kinematics and muscle activity in individuals free from shoulder pain, with and without FHRSP. Eighty volunteers were classified as having FHRSP or ideal posture. Scapular kinematics were collected concurrently with muscle activity from the upper and lower trapezius as well as the serratus anterior muscles during a loaded flexion and overhead reaching task using an electromagnetic tracking system and surface electromyography. Separate mixed model analyses of variance were used to compare three-dimensional scapular kinematics and muscle activity during the ascending phases of both tasks. Individuals with FHRSP displayed significantly greater scapular internal rotation with less serratus anterior activity, during both tasks as well as greater scapular upward rotation, anterior tilting during the flexion task when compared with the ideal posture group. These results provide support for the clinical hypothesis that FHRSP impacts shoulder mechanics independent of shoulder pain.

 

21) The influence of cranio-cervical posture on maximal mouth opening and pressure pain threshold in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders.

Clin J Pain. 2011 Jan;27(1):48-55. La Touche R, París-Alemany A, von Piekartz H, Mannheimer JS, Fernández-Carnero J, Rocabado M.

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cranio-cervical posture on the maximal mouth opening (MMO) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) in patients with myofascial temporomandibular pain disorders… The results of this study shows that the experimental induction of different cranio-cervical postures influences the MMO and PPT values of the temporomandibular joint and muscles of mastication that receive motor and sensory innervation by the trigeminal nerve. Our results provide data that supports the biomechanical relationship between the cranio-cervical region and the dynamics of the temporomandibular joint, as well as trigeminal nociceptive processing in different cranio-cervical postures.

 

22) Body posture evaluations in subjects with internal temporomandibular joint derangement.

Cranio. 2009 Oct;27(4):231-42. Munhoz WC, Marques AP.

The aim of this study was to verify possible relationships between global body posture and temporomandibular joint internal derangement (TMJ-id), by comparing 30 subjects presenting typical TMJ-id signs to 20 healthy subjects. Body posture was assessed using the analysis of muscle chains on several photographs… There was a trend noticed in the group with the most severe dysfunction, to present a forward head and shoulders posture…

 

23) Global body posture evaluation in patients with temporomandibular joint disorder.

Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(1):35-9. Saito ET, Akashi PM, Sacco Ide C.

To identify the relationship between anterior disc displacement and global posture (plantar arches, lower limbs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, vertebral spine, head and mandibles). Common signs and symptoms of anterior disc displacement were also identified… Global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint… Our results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder. Hence, postural evaluation could be an important component in the overall approach to providing accurate prevention and treatment in the management of patients with temporomandibular disorder.

 

24) Respiratory dysfunction in chronic neck pain patients. A pilot study.

Cephalalgia. 2009 Jul;29(7):701-10. Kapreli E, Vourazanis E, Billis E, Oldham JA, Strimpakos N.

The aim of this pilot study was to add weight to a hypothesis according to which patients presenting with chronic neck pain could have a predisposition towards respiratory dysfunction. Twelve patients with chronic neck pain and 12 matched controls participated in this study. Spirometric values, maximal static pressures, forward head posture and functional tests were examined in all subjects. According to the results, chronic neck patients presented with a statistically significant decreased maximal voluntary ventilation and respiratory muscle strength. Furthermore, the current study demonstrated a strong association between an increased forward head posture and decreased respiratory muscle strength in neck patients. The connection of neck pain and respiratory function could be an important consideration in relation to patient assessment, rehabilitation and consumption of pharmacological agents.

 

25) Influence of forward head posture on condylar position.

J Oral Rehabil. 2008 Nov;35(11):795-800. Ohmure H, Miyawaki S, Nagata J, Ikeda K, Yamasaki K, Al-Kalaly A.

There are several reports suggesting that forward head posture is associated with temporomandibular disorders and restraint of mandibular growth, possibly due to mandibular displacement posteriorly. However, there have been few reports in which the condylar position was examined in forward head posture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the condyle moves posteriorly in the forward head posture. The condylar position and electromyography from the masseter, temporal and digastric muscles were recorded on 15 healthy male adults at mandibular rest position in the natural head posture and deliberate forward head posture. The condylar position in the deliberate forward head posture was significantly more posterior than that in the natural head posture. The activity of the masseter and digastric muscles in the deliberate forward head posture was slightly increased. These results suggest that the condyle moves posteriorly in subjects with forward head posture.

 

Check out the world’s best postural analysis software at this link: www.torquerelease.com.au/Posture-Pro-Software.htm

 

Yours for better health and better chiropractic

Nick Hodgson

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IMPRESSIVE AURICULOTHERAPY RESEARCH KEEPS ON COMING…

Thursday, August 2nd, 2012

To me the biggest question when it comes to Auriculotherapy is simple: Does stimulating reflex points on the surface of the auricle (ear) produce measurable physiological improvements? Based on the scientific literature searches I have performed and presented I believe this question has been answered beyond any doubt – YES! Locating and stimulating somatotopic reflex points on the surface of the ear consistently produces change to the internal body physiology, distant from the site of stimulation. To me the ONLY debate in Auriculotherapy is about identification and selection of the best points to treat for different syndromes and this is the focus and priority of our training programs – to supply you with the technology and clinical knowledge that will assist you to make the most effective treatment decisions…

First let’s summarise the most recent research findings (September 2011 to July 2012):

1)      Obesity body measurements, lipid profile, inflammatory, and immunologic markers – This study examined the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture on body weight loss and its impact on lipid profile and immunologic markers in obese subjects. With a large sample size of 204 randomized to therapeutic acupuncture and control groups. Subjects received authentic  or sham acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the next 6 weeks, the low-calorie diet was used on its own. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and 6 and 12 weeks later. In addition to body measurement and lipid parameters, serum anti-heat shock protein levels were assessed. Comparison between cases and controls showed that authentic acupuncture was more effective in reducing the levels of anthropometric measurements and anti-heat shock protein antibodies. The researchers concluded that auricular acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective for weight loss and dyslipidemia. Moreover, it was found that it has modulatory effects on the immune system.

2)      Chronic Low Back Pain – The objective of this study was to explore the acceptance of auricular point acupressure to reduce chronic low back pain (CLBP) and estimate minimum clinically important differences for pain intensity change. A total of 74 subjects participated in the study. The retention rate was 87%. Subjects reported a 46% reduction in worst pain, and over 50% reduction in average pain, overall pain severity and pain interference by the end of study, and 62.5% subjects also reported less pain medication use.

3)      Moderate and severe sudden deafness – This research tested the therapeutic effect on moderate and severe sudden deafness treated with low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with auricular point sticking (APS) and as compared with electroacupuncture. Two hundred and fifty-eight cases of moderate and severe sudden hearing loss were included. Both therapies were able to decrease frequency audiometry, improve auditory function, and the therapeutic effects were better with prolongation of treatment time. The clinical efficacy of the two therapies on moderate and severe sudden deafness were remarkably superior to that of conventional treatment.

4)      Analgesia during perioperative period in total hip replacement surgery – This study investigated the clinical effects of auricular acupoint in the treatment of analgesia during perioperative period in total hip arthroplasty. 60 patients with late osteonecrosis of the femoral head were treated by total hip arthroplasty and randomly divided into auricular acupuncture group and control group. The study concluded that auricular acupuncture can reduce postoperative pain, reduce the usage of analgesia and complications such as nausea and vomiting, and improve the function of hip joint after operation.

5)      Glucometabolism in patients with diabetes – This paper explored the intervention effect of the auricular stimulation for diabetes. Forty-five cases were treated and changes of the fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and glycosylated hemoglobin were compared before and after treatment. All measures were improved after treatment.

6)      Reducing stress in nursing professionals – This clinical randomized trial was performed to evaluate the stress levels of the nursing staff of a hospital and analyze the effectiveness of auriculotherapy. 75 participants with mean and high stress scores were divided into groups (control, needles, and seeds). In conclusion, auriculotherapy reduced the stress in the nursing staff.

7)      The successful treatment of flat warts! – Flat warts are a common presenting complaint in adolescents and adults. Patients suffering from flat warts are often unsatisfied with conventional medical care because of adverse effects such as intolerable pain, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, or occasionally allergic contact dermatitis. To offset the possibilities of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and scar formation, the method of auricular acupuncture was used. 60 subjects with flat warts were all outpatients and randomly allocated to a treatment group or a control group. Thirty subjects in the treatment group were treated with weekly auricular acupuncture for 10 weeks while the other subjects in the control group were treated with tretinoin ointment topically for 10 weeks. 53% in the treatment group recovered fully from flat warts without recurrence during the ensuing six months follow-up compared with only 3% in the control group. During the treatment period and the ensuing six months follow-up, no adverse effects were observed by the investigators or reported by patients.

8)       Increased heart rate variability – The effects of high-tech acupuncture on autonomic function was performed by two research teams from China and Austria. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) recordings in 10 male anesthetized rats were performed under stable conditions. HR did not change significantly during any acupuncture stimulation in anesthetized rats. Total HRV changed significantly during auricular acupuncture.

9)      Suppressing Epileptic Seizures via Activating the Parasympathetic Nervous System – Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body’s dysfunction. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that auricular acupuncture has a significant effect on inducing parasympathetic tone. Autonomic imbalance demonstrating an increased sympathetic activity and a reduced parasympathetic activation is involved in the development and progress of epileptic seizures. This paper proposes that auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system.

10)   Effectively reducing anxiety before dental treatment – This study analysed whether auricular acupuncture could reduce anxiety before dental treatment. This prospective, randomised patient-blinded study with 182 patients compared anxiety before dental treatment following auricular acupuncture versus acupuncture at sham points and a non-intervention control group. Auricular acupuncture reduced state anxiety score more effectively than sham acupuncture. In contrast, state anxiety in the control group increased.

11)   Weight Reduction and Abdominal Obesity – The study was designed to test the efficacy of different materials used in an auricular acupressure program on weight reduction, changes to waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. This study used a randomized design with two groups who were treated with two types of auricular acupressure. The total sample size was 56 young adults who ranged in age from 18 to 20 years old. Each participant was met with weekly for ten-minute sessions during which ear acupressure treatment was performed. Sessions continued for eight weeks. The results suggested that auricular acupressure is a reasonable option for the treatment of overweight and obesity in young adults.

12)   Analgesia during lower limb orthopedic operation – This paper observed the therapeutic effect of otopoint-pellet pressure combined with patient controlled intravenous analgesia for lower-limb orthopedic surgery. 120 lower-limb orthopedic operation patients were randomized into pellet pressure plus intravenous analgesia and intravenous analgesia only group. The patient’s pain degree was evaluated by visual analogue score. The study concluded that pellet pressure in addition to analgesia is superior in post-operative analgesia and reducing post-operative adverse reactions.

13)   Effect on epileptic seizures – These researchers observed the anti-seizure effect of auriclular electroacupuncture at different site regions in awake rats. The results lead to the conclusion that electroacupuncture has a good effect in suppressing epileptic seizures, which may be mediated via the auricular branch of the vagus nerve.

14)   “Lazy Eyes” – This paper compared the differences in the therapeutic effect on child amblyopia between auricular point sticking therapy and routine complex treatment. Two hundreds and thirty cases of amblyopia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 120 cases (212 eyes) were in the observation group and 110 cases (194 eyes) were in the control group. The observation group was treated with auricular point sticking therapy. The control group was treated with routine complex treatment, such as wearing glasses, shade therapy and family refined performance therapy. The changes of vision were observed after treatment in the two groups. The follow-up was 3 years. The effective rate was 81% in the observation group of ametropic amblyopia and 52% in the control group. The effective rate was 73% in the observation group of anisometropic amblyopia and 47% in the control group. The effective rate was 71% in the observation group of strabismic amblyopia and 45% in the control group. The authors made the impressive conclusion that auricular point sticking therapy can obviously improve child visual acuity.

15)   Forty years of acupuncture experience in an ENT practice – Acupuncture as a complementary method provides optimal conditions for ENT specialists, particularly when somatotopic microsystems are used. Via points of these systems, pain conditions and functional disorders as well as specific ENT indications (e.g., rhinitis pollinosa, sinusitis, pharyngitis) can be treated successfully. Therapy is performed quickly and without side effects.

16)   Influence on the quality of life and the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism – This study included 27 female patients who applied for medical treatment of arthralgias and myalgias. They were found to have elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in conjunction with the normal concentrations of thyroid hormones. Twenty of the 27 patients completed two therapeutic courses with a 3-4 month interval between them. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the number and severity of the initial clinical symptoms; the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone fell down to the physiological values, characteristics of the quality of life became comparable with those of healthy subjects. It is concluded that acupuncture may be regarded as an alternative to substitution therapy of subclinical hypothyroidism.

17)   As an aid for smoking cessation – 156 consecutive adult smokers were observed for the end point of self-reported continuous abstinence. 77% stopped smoking for more than 7 days. Moreover, 53% remained free of smoking for more than 90 days. Long-term abstinence rates were 49% (1 year) and 48% (2 years). Treatment-related side effects were observed in 25% of participants. Side effects were mild and resolved within hours.

18)   Effects on heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for elite basketball athletes – This study investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on athletes’ recovery abilities after exercise. Subjects were selected from twenty-four male elite university basketball players, randomly divided into two groups: auricular acupuncture group and control group, each group containing twelve subjects. Each subject in both groups performed a ride on the stationary bike until exhausted. The results showed that both Heart Rate (max) and blood lactic acid were significantly lower at the 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise. This suggests that auricular acupuncture can enhance athletes’ recovery abilities after aggressive exercise.

To find out more about Auriculotherapy training go to this link: http://www.torquerelease.com.au/Auriculotherapy-Training-2.htm

abstracts:

1)      Effects of auricular acupuncture on anthropometric, lipid profile, inflammatory, and immunologic markers: a randomized controlled trial study.

J Altern Complement Med. 2012 Jul;18(7):668-77. Epub 2012 Jul 12. Abdi H, Abbasi-Parizad P, Zhao B, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Tavallaie S, Rahsepar AA, Parizadeh SM, Safariyan M, Nemati M, Mohammadi M, Darbandi M, Darbandi S, Ferns GA.

Abstract Objectives: A randomized controlled clinical trial was performed to examine the effectiveness of auricular acupuncture on body weight loss and its impact on lipid profile, and immunologic and inflammatory markers in obese subjects. Methods: Participants (n=204) were randomized to therapeutic acupuncture and control groups. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks (first period) in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the next 6 weeks (second period), the low-calorie diet was used on its own. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and 6 and 12 weeks later. In addition to anthropometric and lipid parameters, serum anti-heat shock protein (Hsp)-27, 60, 65, 70 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were assessed. Results: In the first period, anthropometric parameters and hs-CRP changed significantly in both groups, while significant changes in anti-Hsp antibodies were only observed in case subjects. In the second period, which shows the sustainable effects of acupuncture, changes in anthropometric parameters were more prominent in controls, while significant reductions in the group receiving authentic acupuncture were maintained for anti-Hsp antibodies. A comparison between the first and second period in both groups showed that the changes for most of the parameters were more significant in the first period. Comparison between cases and controls showed that authentic acupuncture was more effective in reducing the levels of anthropometric factors and anti-Hsp antibodies but not hs-CRP. Conclusions: Auricular acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective for weight loss and dyslipidemia. Moreover, it was found that it has immunomodulatory but not anti-inflammatory effects on the immune system by regulation of the levels of anti-Hsp antibodies.

2)      Auricular Point Acupressure for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Feasibility Study for 1-Week Treatment.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:383257. Epub 2012 Jul 1. Yeh CH, Chien LC, Chiang YC, Huang LC.

Objectives. The objective of this one-group, repeated-measures design was to explore the acceptance of auricular point acupressure (APA) to reduce chronic low back pain (CLBP) and estimate minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs) for pain intensity change. Methods. Subjects received 7-day APA treatment. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point for 7-day. The Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI) was used to collect outcome data. Results. A total of 74 subjects participated in the study. Ten subjects dropped out and the retention rate was 87%. Subjects reported a 46% reduction in BPI worst pain, and over 50% reduction in BPI average pain, overall pain severity and pain interference by the end of study, and 62.5% subjects also reported less pain medication use. The MCIDs for the subscale of BPI ranged from .70 to 1.86 points. The percentage improvement of MCIDs from baseline was between 14.5-24.9%. Discussion. APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with CLBP. A sham group is needed in order to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of more frequent visits by the auricular therapist and patients’ expectation of the APA treatment.

3)      Moderate and severe sudden deafness treated with low-energy laser irradiation combined with auricular acupoint sticking.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2012 May;32(5):413-6. Zhou GY.

OBJECTIVE: To test the therapeutic effect on moderate and severe sudden deafness treated with low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with auricular point sticking (APS) and as compared with electroacupuncture. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight cases of moderate and severe sudden hearing loss were randomly divided into an observation group 1, an observation group 2 and a control group, 86 cases in each group. In three groups, 10% low molecular Dextran 500 mL were used for intravenous infusion. Based on the above treatment, the observation group 1 was treated with low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal (such as Ermen (TE 21), Tinggong (SI 19) and Tinghui (GB 2)), combined with APS at Gan (liver), Shen (kidney) and Neifenmi (endorine), etc. The observation group 2 was treated with electroacupuncture at the same acupoints as those point irradiation in observation group 1. Fifteen days made one session. The therapeutic effects were evaluated after one and two sessions. RESULTS: After two sessions, The cured rate was 40.7% (35/86) in observation group 1 and 38.4% (33/86) in observation group 2,which were superior to 25.6% (22/86) in control group (both P < 0.05). Compared with one session, the therapeutic effects after two sessions were better in two observation groups (both P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups (both P > 0.05). In comparison of the improvements of frequency audiometry and auditory function, the two observation groups were better than those in control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and the improvements after two sessions were better in two observation groups (both P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Both of low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with APS and electroacupuncture are able to decrease frequency audiometry, improve auditory function, and the therapeutic effects are better with prolongation of treatment time. The clinical efficacy of above two therapies on moderate and severe sudden deafness is superior remarkably to that of conventional treatment. The therapy of low-energy laser irradiation on acupoint and external auditory canal combined with APS can replace the electroacupuncture therapy in treating moderate and severe sudden deafness.

4)      Case-control study on application of auricular acupuncture for the treatment of analgesia during perioperative period in total hip arthroplasty.

Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2012 Mar;25(3):220-3. Wang JF, Bao HX, Cai YH, Zhang JH, Tong PJ.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical effects of auricular acupoint (AA) in the treatment of analgesia during perioperative period in total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: From March 2008 to August 2010, 60 patients with late osteonecrosis of the femoral head were treated by total hip arthroplasty and randomly divided into auricular acupuncture (AA) group and control group, 30 patients in each group. There were 11 males and 19 females in the AA group, with an average age of (60.93 +/- 5.90) years; the patients were treated with auricular acupuncture on the point of Shenmen, Subcortex, Kidney and hip joint for four times a week. There were 12 males and 18 females in control group, with an average age of (59.87 +/- 6.21) years; while the patients without auricular acupuncture. VAS score was used to evaluate the degree of pain; Harris score was used to evaluate the function of hip joint. All patients received patient controlled analgesia pump (PCA) for 48 hours after surgery (400 ml liquids were in PCA pump, including 800 mg tramadol and 0.8 mg fentanyl). The dosage of liquids and adverse reaction of PCA pump in different time were recorded. RESULTS: The VAS score on the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 7th day separately was (3.61 +/- 0.29), (3.59 +/- 0.30), (2.97 +/- 0.26), (2.29 +/- 0.45), and lower than control group, which separately was (4.19 +/- 0.28), (4.00 +/- 0.31), (3.15 +/- 0.29), (2.83 +/- 0.31). The dosage of PCA in AA group separately was (72.27 +/- 8.06), (60.40 +/- 8.16), (44.13 +/- 4.75), (40.40 +/- 3.69), and less than control group, which was (86.27 +/- 8.51), (73.87 +/- 8.32), (54.53 +/- 5.20), (44.67 +/- 6.31) on the time of 0-12, 12-24, 24-36 h and 36-48 h after surgery. During the using of PCA, nausea and vomiting occurred in 5 cases, less than control group (21 cases). Harris score in AA group (78.90 +/- 5.14) was higher than control group (73.37 +/- 5.99) 2 weeks after operation. CONCLUSION: Auricular acupuncture can reduce postoperative pain, reduce the usage of analgesic and complications, such as nausea and vomiting, improve the function of hip joint after operation.

5)      Effects of stimulating in the cavum concha on glucometabolism in patients with diabetes.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2012 Mar;32(3):198-200. Ju YL, Chen ML, Wang L, Lan W, Chi X, Liu JX, Zhang HL.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the intervention effect of the auricular stimulator in the cavum concha for diabetes. METHODS: Forty-five cases were treated with auricular simulator in the cavum concha for 30 min, once daily for consecutive 3 months. The changes of the fasting plasma glucose (FBG), blood glucose load after 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (P2 BG)and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: The level of the HbA1c was obviously decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), and there were also statistically significant differences in FBG and P2 BG after the treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: With the auricular stimulator, the stimulation in the cavum concha is benefit for the improvement of HbA1c of the diabetes.

6)      The applicability of auriculotherapy with needles or seeds to reduce stress in nursing professionals.

Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2012 Feb;46(1):89-95. Kurebayashi LF, Gnatta JR, Borges TP, Belisse G, Coca S, Minami A, Souza TM, da Silva MJ.

This clinical randomized trial was performed with the objective to evaluate the stress levels of the nursing staff of a hospital and analyze the effectiveness of auriculotherapy with needles and seeds. The 75 participants with mean (44/58.7%) and high (31/41.3%) scores according to the Stress Symptoms List were divided into groups (control, needles, and seeds), who received eight sessions on the Shenmen, Kidney and Brainstem points and were evaluated at the baseline, fourth and eighth sessions and on the 15-day follow-up session. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences among the groups at the third assessment (F=3.963/P=0.023) and follow-up (F=6.136/P=0.003). These differences occurred between the control and needle groups. The ’seeds’ and needles groups both showed differences (p<0.05) at the second assessment when compared within the same group. In conclusion, auriculotherapy reduced the stress in the nursing staff, with needles showing better results than seeds for high scores, maintaining the effects for 15 days.

7)      The successful treatment of flat warts with auricular acupuncture.

Int J Dermatol. 2012 Feb;51(2):211-5. Ning S, Li F, Qian L, Xu D, Huang Y, Xiao M, Duan G, Li Y.

BACKGROUND: Flat warts are a common presenting complaint in adolescents and adults and may be a cosmetic problem as well. Patients suffering from flat warts are often unsatisfied with conventional medical care because of adverse effects such as intolerable pain, hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, or occasionally allergic contact dermatitis. To offset the possibilities of hyperpigmentation, hypopigmentation, and scar formation, the method of auricular acupuncture was used. METHODS: Single-blind method adopted, 60 subjects with flat warts were all outpatients and randomly allocated to a treatment group or a control group, with 30 patients in each group. Thirty subjects in the treatment group were treated with weekly auricular acupuncture for 10 weeks while the other subjects in the control group were treated with 0.1% of tretinoin ointment topically for 10 weeks. RESULTS: Sixteen subjects in the treatment group (53.33%) recovered fully from flat warts without recurrence during the ensuing six months’ follow-up after 10 weeks’ surgery compared with only one subject in the control group (3.33%). The therapeutic effect of the treatment group was statistically better than that of the control group by Mann-Whitney U-test with SPSS software (P < 0.01). During the treatment period and the ensuing six months’ follow-up, no adverse effects were observed by the investigators or reported by patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that auricular acupuncture may be a viable alternative for the treatment of flat warts. Larger randomized studies are needed to fully evaluate auricular acupuncture against more conventional treatments, and these are planned.

8)       Sino-European transcontinental basic and clinical high-tech acupuncture studies-part 1: auricular acupuncture increases heart rate variability in anesthetized rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:817378. Epub 2012 Feb 21. Gao XY, Liu K, Zhu B, Litscher G.

Evidence-based research concerning the effects of high-tech acupuncture on autonomic function was performed by two research teams from China and Austria. This study describes the first transcontinental teleacupuncture measurements in animals. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) recordings in 10 male Sprague-Dawley anesthetized rats were performed under stable conditions in Beijing, China, and the data analysis was completed in Graz, Austria. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded by an HRV Medilog AR12 system during acupuncture of the ear and body (PC6 Neiguan, CV12 Zhongwan, ST36 Zusanli). The data were analyzed using specially adapted novel Austrian software. HR did not change significantly during any acupuncture stimulation in anesthetized rats (ear acupuncture, PC6, CV12, or ST36). Total HRV only changed significantly (P = 0.025) during auricular acupuncture (acupoint heart). The low-frequency/high-frequency ratio parameter decreased significantly (P = 0.03) during stimulation of ST36. This change was based on intensification of the related mechanism of blood pressure regulation that has been demonstrated in previous studies in humans. Modernization of acupuncture research performed as a collaboration between China and Austria has also been demonstrated.

9)      Auricular Acupuncture May Suppress Epileptic Seizures via Activating the Parasympathetic Nervous System: A Hypothesis Based on Innovative Methods.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:615476. Epub 2012 Feb 1. He W, Rong PJ, Li L, Ben H, Zhu B, Litscher G.

Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body’s dysfunction. An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that auricular acupuncture has a significant effect on inducing parasympathetic tone. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder consisting of recurrent seizures resulting from excessive, uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Autonomic imbalance demonstrating an increased sympathetic activity and a reduced parasympathetic activation is involved in the development and progress of epileptic seizures. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system such as vagus nerve stimulation has been used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy. Here, we propose that auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system.

10)   Auricular acupuncture effectively reduces state anxiety before dental treatment – a randomised controlled trial.

Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Jan 6. Michalek-Sauberer A, Gusenleitner E, Gleiss A, Tepper G, Deusch E.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to analyse whether auricular acupuncture, acupuncture at the outer ear, could reduce state anxiety before dental treatment. METHODS: This prospective, randomised patient-blinded study with 182 patients compared anxiety before dental treatment following auricular acupuncture at the relaxation-, tranquillizer- and master cerebral points (auricular acupuncture group) versus acupuncture at sham points (finger-, shoulder- and tonsil points; sham group) and a non-intervention control group. Anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (German version) before auricular acupuncture and 20 min thereafter, immediately before dental treatment. RESULTS: Auricular acupuncture reduced state anxiety score more effectively from 54.7±10.8 to 46.9±10.4 (mean ± SD) than sham acupuncture from 51.9±10.2 to 48.4±10.0. In contrast, state anxiety in the control group increased from 51.0±11.7 to 54.0±11.6 (mean increase +3.0; CI +4.7 to +1.2). The decrease in state anxiety in both intervention groups was statistically significant (p<0.001) when compared to the non-intervention control group. After correcting for group differences in baseline state anxiety, the reduction in anxiety was -7.3 score points (CI -9.0 to -5.6) in the auricular acupuncture group and -3.7 score points (CI -5.4 to -1.9) in the sham group (p=0.008). CONCLUSION: Auricular acupuncture, a minimally invasive method, effectively reduces state anxiety before dental treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Auricular acupuncture could be an option for patients scheduled for dental treatment, who experience an uncomfortable degree of anxiety and request an acute intervention for their anxiety.

11)   Efficacy of Two Different Materials used in Auricular Acupressure on Weight Reduction and Abdominal Obesity.

Am J Chin Med. 2012;40(4):713-20. Hsieh CH, Su TJ, Fang YW, Chou PH.

The current study was designed to test the efficacy of different materials used in an auricular acupressure program on weight reduction, changes to waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. This study used a randomized design with two groups who were treated with auricular acupressure using Semen Vaccariae or the Japanese Magnetic Pearl. Both groups consisted of Asian young adults with a waist circumference ≥ 80 cm in the females and ≥ 90 cm in the males. At completion of the eight-week treatment period, the total sample size was 56 young adults who ranged in age from 18 to 20 years old. Each participant was met with weekly for ten-minute sessions during which ear acupressure treatment was performed. Sessions continued for eight weeks wherein both groups received acupressure with the Japanese Magnetic Pearl or Semen Vaccariae on the ear acupoints. While both groups showed significant reductions (p ≤ 0.05) to body weight and waist circumference after eight weeks of treatments, the group treated with Semen Vaccariae group showed a more effective weight loss over the short term. Given that auricular acupressure is a safe and cost-effective treatment for weight loss, our results suggest that auricular acupressure is a reasonable option for the treatment of overweight and obesity in young adults.

12)   Clinical application of otopoint-pellet pressure combined with patient controlled intravenous analgesia to lower limb orthopedic operation.

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2011 Dec;36(6):461-2. Liang YF, Tu FH, Huang CX.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect of otopoint-pellet pressure (OPP) combined with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) for lower-limb surgery of orthopedics. METHODS: A total of 120 lower-limb orthopedic operation patients were randomized into OPP + PCIA group (n = 60) and PCIA group (n = 60). The patient’s pain degree was evaluated by visual analogue score (VAS). RESULTS: In comparison with the simple PCIA group, VAS levels were significantly lower in the OPP + PCIA group than in the PCIA group 2, 6, 24 and 48 h after operation. The number of patients with post-operative reactions of nausea, vomiting and urinary retention in the OPP+ PCIA group was remarkably lower than that of OPP group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: OPP + PCIA is superior to simple PCIA in post-operative analgesia and reducing post-operative adverse reactions in lower-limb orthopedic operation patients.

13)   Effect of electroacupuncture of different regions of the auricle on epileptic seizures in epilepsy rats.

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 2011 Dec;36(6):414-8. He W, Li YH, Rong PJ, Li L, Ben H, Zhu B.

OBJECTIVE: To observe the anti-seizure effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at different sites regions of the auricle in awake rats.

METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into model, ear-apex, ear-outer-margin, earlobe, cymba-concha, cavitas-conchae groups (n = 10 in each group). A metal microelectrode (diameter: 50 microm) was implanted into the somatosensary cortex for recording the field potentials (FPs). Epileptic seizure model was established by intraperitoneal injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, 60 mg/kg). EA (20 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to ear-apex, ear-outer-margin, earlobe, cymaba-concha and cavitas-conchae for 30 min, respectively. The epileptic behavior changes (scores) were determined in the light of Racine’s method, and the epileptic seizure was assessed according to the epileptic FPs (5-folds above the basic amplitude) of the cerebral cortex. RESULTS: In comparison with the model group, the latency of the first seizure of epilepsy in the ear-outer-margin, earlobe, cymba-concha, cavitas-conchae groups were increased significantly (P < 0.01), while the scores of epileptic behavior and the duration of seizure shown by FPs decreased considerably in the ear-apex, ear-outer-margin, earlobe, cymba-concha, cavitas-conchae groups (P < 0.01). Comparison among the five EA treatment groups showed that the effects of both cymba-concha and cavitas-conchae groups were significantly superior to those of ear-apex, earlobe and ear-outer-margin groups in increasing the latency of the first seizure of epilepsy, and reducing the scores of the epileptic behavior and seizure duration (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the cymba-concha and cavitas-conchae groups in the above-mentioned 3 indexes (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: EA of cymba-concha and cavitas-conchae has a good effect in suppressing epileptic seizures, which may be mediated via the auricular branch of the vagus nerve.

14)   Observation on therapeutic effect of child amblyopia treated with auricular point sticking therapy.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2011 Dec;31(12):1081-3. Gong RL.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences in the therapeutic effect on child amblyopia between auricular point sticking therapy and routine complex treatment. METHODS: Two hundreds and thirty cases of amblyopia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 120 cases (212 eyes) were in the observation group and 110 cases (194 eyes) were in the control group. The observation group was treated with auricular point sticking therapy. The main points were Yan (eye), Shenmen, Gan (liver), Pi (spleen) and Shen (kidney), etc. The control group was treated with routine complex treatment, such as wearing glasses, shade therapy and family refined performance therapy. The changes of vision were observed after treatment in the two groups. The follow-up was 3 years. RESULTS: The effective rate was 81.0% (64/79) in the observation group of ametropic amblyopia and 52.2% (36/69) in the control group. The effective rate was 73.1% (49/67) in the observation group of anisometropic amblyopia and 47.7% (31/65) in the control group. The effective rate was 71.2% (47/66) in the observation group of strabismic amblyopia and 45.0% (27/60) in the control group. The therapeutic effect of the observation group was superior to that of the control group (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Auricular point sticking therapy can obviously improve child visual acuity with simple manipulation.

15)   Forty years of acupuncture experience in an ENT practice.

HNO. 2011 Dec;59(12):1185-90. Gleditsch JM.

Acupuncture as a complementary method provides optimal conditions for ENT specialists, particularly when somatotopic microsystems are used, e.g., ear, skull, and oral acupuncture. Via points of these systems, pain conditions and functional disorders as well as specific ENT indications (e.g., rhinitis pollinosa, sinusitis, pharyngitis) can be treated successfully. Therapy is performed quickly and without side effects.

16)   The influence of acupuncture on the quality of life and the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone in patients presenting with subclinical hypothyroidism.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2011 Sep-Oct;(5):29-33. Luzina KÉ, Luzina LL, Vasilenko AM.

This study included 27 female patients who applied for medical treatment of arthralgias and myalgias. They were found to have elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in conjunction with the normal concentrations of thyroid hormones. The therapeutic procedures included corporal and auricular acupuncture, introduction of needles into the reflexogenic scalp and wrist zones (depending on clinical symptoms) and into the thyroid gland projection zones on the skin, massage of paravertebral regions of the cervical and thoracic spine using a bone scraper (the Gua Sha healing technique). Twenty of the 27 patients completed two therapeutic courses with a 3-4 month interval between them. The treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the number and severity of the initial clinical symptoms; the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone fell down to the physiological values, characteristics of the quality of life became comparable with those of healthy subjects. It is concluded that acupuncture may be regarded as an alternative to substitution therapy of subclinical hypothyroidism.

17)   Photoelectric stimulation of defined ear points (Smokex-Pro method) as an aid for smoking cessation: a prospective observational 2-year study with 156 smokers in a primary care setting.

Eur Addict Res. 2011;17(6):292-301. Epub 2011 Sep 6. Breivogel B, Vuthaj B, Krumm B, Hummel J, Cornell D, Diehl A.

BACKGROUND: Smokex-Pro is a smoking cessation method using a protocol of a standardized consultation and computer-assisted photoelectric stimulation of defined regions in the ear and face. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 156 consecutive adult smokers (81 males, 75 females; mean age 43.8 years; body mass index 25.5; daily cigarettes 24.7; Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence 5; 30 smoking years). The primary end point was the self-reported continuous abstinence rate. RESULTS: Participants completed on average only 32% of recommended visits. A total of 76.7% stopped smoking for more than 7 days. Moreover, 53.4% remained free of smoking for more than 90 days. Long-term abstinence rates were 49.3% (1 year) and 47.95% (2 years). Treatment-related side effects were observed in 24.5% of participants. Side effects were mild and resolved within hours. CONCLUSION: The Smokex-Pro method appears to be an effective aid for smoking cessation. The treatment was well tolerated and showed only mild and temporary side effects. The average cost of treatment is typically less than EUR 90; the total treatment time is typically 60-90 min. These factors make it an attractive alternative compared to traditional smoking cessation methods. Controlled clinical trials will be needed to confirm the results of this study and refine the treatment for maximum efficacy.

18)   Effects of auricular acupuncture on heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for elite basketball athletes.

Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(6):1131-8. Lin ZP, Chen YH, Fan C, Wu HJ, Lan LW, Lin JG.

This study investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on athletes’ recovery abilities after exercise. Subjects were selected from twenty-four male elite university basketball players, randomly divided into two groups: auricular acupuncture group (AAG), and normal control group (NCG), each group containing twelve subjects. Auricular acupuncture was experimented to each AAG athlete while no auricular acupuncture was conducted to each NCG athlete. Each subject in both groups performed a ride on the stationary bike until exhausted. The data of heart rate (HR(max)), oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and blood lactic acid were measured at four points of time: during the rest period after warm-ups and at the 5th, 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise, respectively. One-way ANOVA and repeated Scheffé methods were used to test the differences of the data between these two groups. The results showed that both HR(max) and blood lactic acid in AAG were significantly lower than those in NCG at the 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise. This suggests that auricular acupuncture can enhance athletes’ recovery abilities after aggressive exercise.

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CHOOSING THE BEST CHIROPRACTIC TECHNIQUE SEMINAR

Monday, April 16th, 2012

I’ve been involved in chiropractic professional development since 1995 and it is with a degree of disappointment that I share that “technique” seminars are less popular than “get rich quick” seminars! This revelation makes me wonder at times why I spend so many hours researching, designing, planning, preparing, writing, promoting and presenting a chiropractic technique seminar? I could get rich a lot quicker myself if I were to offer a program teaching you how to make more money by doing less work. But, as soon as I follow this line of thought my purpose and vision remind me that the most important “thing” that a Chiropractor can do – is to deliver an awesome adjustment to his/her practice members. And hence the second most important thing I can do is help Chiropractors to maximise their technical skill. (In case you are wondering what the most important thing I can do is – it is to deliver an awesome adjustment to my practice members.)

So why do many chiropractors neglect their technical development while investing time and money into listening to some self-made guru tell them that if they do what he did, then they will get as rich and popular as he is?

I believe the first and foremost reason is that we doubt that we can get better results by doing what we currently do better. I think that we assume that to get better results we need to do something different. There are a lot of internal and external influences devaluing the chiropractic adjustment and its therapeutic potential and we become easily distracted by programs and products that offer us a quick and easy alternative path to “success”.

The simplest way to fail is to be distracted from the most important priorities in your life – Stephen Covey describes it as climbing the ladder of success only to discover at the top, that the ladder is leaning against the wrong wall. As Chiropractors we should be the happiest and most fulfilled when we are caring for our “patients” – and to achieve this requires that we have absolute faith, confidence and belief in our products, services and ideas (thank you James Parker for that truism).

The biggest priority for a Chiropractor is to be a great adjustor. You might think that it is more important to be a great communicator, but remember that an adjustment is “communication through touch” – your hands speak much louder than your mouth can. This leads to me to today’s question – when was the last time you attended a really good technique seminar? Here is my top 8 list of the attributes to look out for in an exceptional technique program:

1) What you learn can be applied to nearly every single practice member: I see a lot of programs claiming that they will show you how to fix the troublesome 5% of your practice. And then there are programs that will show you how to fix obscure and rarely seen conditions that another 5% suffer with. What about getting better results with the 90%? This will grow your practice exponentially instead of additively. Here’s how someone else put it: “I have found the TRT to be the first technique that I have found to be superior to what I have done in the last twenty seven years. I made the change slowly at first. I have seen intriguing and wonderful results with TRT. I now adjust about 90% of patients with TRT.”

2) You leave the program with the practical skills and clinical know-how to apply on Monday morning on your first practice member: I’ve left some technique shows with the feeling that they knew what they were doing, but had no idea how to train anyone else in how to do it. When it comes to technique, there is a big difference between lecturing and training. Here’s how one of our registrants put it: “Thank you for the generosity and knowledge/wisdom. Other courses promise you will be able to confidently apply the technique on Monday morning. Well I beat that and took my table over to family members on Sunday night. Miracles are happening in my practice and I feel as if I am honoring the body’s innate wisdom through the checking system and finally not over-treating. THANK YOU.”

3) You leave excited, inspired, challenged, stretched and enlarged: It’s great to get feedback like this: “Hi Nick, Great seminar – has renewed my faith in true chiropractic – was seriously considering de-registration from the profession so was very timely intervention!!! Many thanks for all your efforts Nick – It’s made a huge difference to the soul of this chiropractor!!!”

4) Lots of supervised hands-on coaching: I could charge a lot less for my seminar, get dozens more people attend, sell heaps more products and make a lot more money by doing this. But my intent is to see each participant “get it” not long after lunch on the second day of our program. I’ve left other programs where I’ve been hugely disappointed with the “hands-on” component of the training, and I just know that I am going to have to spend hours deciphering notes and experimenting with the application before it’s of any real use. As one of our past participants said “It was the best conference and technique seminar I have ever been to. It provided me with some very timely answers to a lot of questions that had been coming up for me in the last couple of years, especially about knowing that Chiropractic and being a Chiropractor is truly what I am here for, but being endlessly frustrated by it (me) just not working the best I knew it (I) could. That was until I learnt about primary subluxations and non-linear adjusting.”

5) It is “real” chiropractic: I know that there are lots of other treatment modalities out there – I even teach some. But you can never get too much of good chiroprac-tic teaching. The thing that continues to inspire and motivate me to keep teaching Torque Release Technique is just how congruent it is with chiropractic philosophy and history, while being completely scientific, contemporary and cutting-edge. That’s what I call balanced – isn’t that what chiropractic is about after all? I really relate to what someone else said: “TRT makes more sense than anything else I’ve learned in chiropractic. I want to learn more!”

6) Plenty of follow up and advanced training opportunities: Some treatment tours arrive in town and then vanish just as fast. Some technique programs expect you to attend the same program over and over. Over the last few years we have developed practice building resources, as well as DVD, online and hands-on advanced training which helps to take our practitioners to new levels of skill and confidence. This is the kind of feedback that feeds my soul: “Thank you Nick. You are always so informative and helpful. Your website is absolutely amazing! I use it all the time. I love your blogs and newsletters also. You have put together an awesome product list as well. As you know, I have ordered your DVD and a poster in the past and they are great. I also use your patient brochures which are SO wonderful. With your help I am able to make a very smooth transition from a pain practice to a wellness practice. We need you in the U.S.!!! HA!”

7) Has an ongoing research agenda: When I look into whether I am going to explore a new technique or method, I check the research first and foremost. It’s great to hear what other people think about it, but what measurements of efficacy have been made? If all I find in promotional materials is testimonials then I won’t be going! You can check out the impressive TRT research pedigree at http://www.torquerelease.com.au/TRT-Articles.htm

8) Excellent notes: I love leaving a seminar with more to read and the ability to review and expand on what I heard at the program. Many programs give you a Hotel note pad and some sales materials for the not-to-be-missed discounts. My seminar notes are usually so comprehensive that I’m starting to have trouble getting them bound at the printers. My wife tells me off for giving “too much information”, but my attitude is that you can never have too much information, for those that want it… Don’t believe me? Listen to someone else: “I spent the weekend reading, watching video, revamping my thinking – and today did as you wrote – I jettisoned by mechanistic habits and truly did tonal chiropractic. It was a rush! Thank you, thank you, thank you for all the support materials you’ve put together!.. Thanks so much for all you’ve written! My brain feels ultra-oxygenated and for the first time in 6 years of practice, I really feel like I’ve got “the Big Idea”.”

I so hope that you can join me for this year’s Torque Release Technique Program in May in Melbourne: Go to www.torquerelease.com.au/Torque-Release-Discount.htm for an extra cheap rate…

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Are you practicing 21st Century Chiropractic?

Monday, March 26th, 2012

You may have the newest web site, the latest computer front desk system, the fanciest Digital XRay Unit, and the best marketing strategy around – But are you using the most up to date Chiropractic Technique available?

TORQUE RELEASE TECHNIQUE is the first chiropractic system to be developed through a randomised, placebo controlled, scientific research project. With research published in Molecular Psychiatry, the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, JMPT, JVSR, Annals Vertebral Subluxation Research and featured on a documentary by the Discovery Health Channel: 2012 is your time to learn how to adjust with Quantum Science and a Neurological Art to match your Vitalistic Philosophy.

Learn how to differentially diagnose the primary subluxation at any moment in time:

We hear at seminars that “Chiropractic Works” but in our own rooms we all struggle with how to get the best results with each individual practice member: And this is not always as simple as we (and they) would like is it? Sometimes this hunger to help can send us to obscure seminars that offer us the secret to helping that 1 in 10 patients that just don’t respond. And this may help us to get slightly better results with some patients. We do have a tendency though to think that to get better results, we need to do something different - other than adjusting that is. But here’s a thought - maybe if we did what we do best, better, then we would get consistently better results! One conclusion I have drawn through my nearly twenty three years in practice - is that the most important thing I can do for a practice member that comes to my rooms for help, is to deliver the best possible adjustment that I can. Now here’s the challenge - the best adjustment is delivered where it needs to be, when it needs to be, in the manner in which it should be - and that requires a differential diagnosis to be able to make such a decision - few technique methodologies truly provide a way of delivering this. Ask yourself this - do you have absolute confidence that the next adjustment that you deliver, is going to be THE ONE that is most needed?

See the Integrator in action – the only three-dimensional adjusting instrument to reproduce what the hands were intended to do with true inter-professional reproducibility:

I’ll be honest - I was never a huge fan of instruments - after all Chiropractic means “done by hand”! And most of the instruments I have seen in action are poor second cousins to what the human hand can offer. That was until I saw the Integrator and its technical specifications. Now I repeatedly hear that an Integrator looks just like many other silver hammers - what the Australian Doctor called “sticks that click”. But “looks like” does not mean “works like”. A chiropractic adjustment is three dimensional in correctional vectors, but all instruments I have seen are two dimensional. The Integrator delivers a super fast impulse, with or without torque, plus recoil, at the exact tonal hertz frequency required to adjust a subluxation, and with a pre-loading mechanism (you don’t fire it, it fires at a pre-determined pressure). In short the Integrator is the only adjusting instrument I have seen that surpasses the specifications of an adjustment by hand.

Experience how to tap into the mesolimbic system with every adjustment to deliver significant state of wellbeing changes:

This is the “final frontier” for chiropractic research, chiropractic science and chiropractic practice: We talk about the power and wonder of the central nervous system, and then regress into showing pictures of squashed spinal nerves in distorted intervertebral foramina. People are not that silly, the scientific and medical community is certainly not that simple, and I’m not sure why we persist with being this immature. The magic of the nervous system is happening deeper than this - at least at the dorsal horns, and all the way up into the mesolimbic system: And the magic of a chiropractic adjustment happens in the depths of the central nervous system and we are rapidly developing the art and science that maximises this effect.

Please come and join us for an intense weekend of philosophy, science and art that will truly expand your horizons, potential and outcomes…

This year’s only opportunity to participate in a Torque Release Technique Seminar and Hands-On Workshop is on Saturday and Sunday May 19 and 20 in Melbourne. Go to http://www.torquerelease.com.au/Torque-Release-Discount.htm for a great discount offer to register early.

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IMPORTANT CHIROPRACTIC RESEARCH

Wednesday, March 14th, 2012

Most Chiropractors do OK – even in tough financial times there are always enough folks around with stiff necks and bad backs to keep an appointment book ticking over. And for the majority of us there is also the smattering of headache and migraine sufferers, asthmatics, bed wetters and trickle of a diverse range of health problems that decide that maybe chiropractic might help. And of course if you’ve been in practice for more than a few months you will have accumulated your devoted followers who show up for their maintenance check-ups and even some following the Chiropractic wellness path – most of us eat, drive a decent car, pay our mortgage, educate our family and even go on some nice holidays thanks to the loyalty of these chiropractic advocates – and there’s nothing wrong with that!

But then occasionally you will hear mention of DD and BJ stating that chiropractic would empty the prisons. And interesting research findings come out suggesting that Chiropractic changes the function of the brain. And then someone publishes research showing that chiropractic adjustments, delivered properly, improve the recovery process of people gripped in a lifestyle of addiction! For most chiropractors these concepts exist outside the walls of the daily scope of practice. And let’s be really honest – we might secretly prefer that they stay there: We feel a bit safer at the thought that certain segments of the population are behind bars as we sleep. The medical profession holds a therapeutic monopoly on the growing demographic of people with disorders of “the mind”. And the thought of drug addicts sitting on our waiting room chairs can create a sense of dis-ease in our own nervous system.

But contemplate this claim – treatment of the mind without care of the spinal cord is less effective – perhaps even ineffective! Consider this – our jails are close to full – they don’t have any problem with client retention and reactivation. The pharmaceutical industry is enjoying unfathomable cash flow due to prescriptions of psychoactive drugs – it’s rare for these people to discontinue care. And our addiction rehabilitation industry is failing – spectacularly – after all dissatisfied customers drop out of care! And one of the possible reasons for these failures is the passive and at times active exclusion of chiropractic care from the therapeutic mix.

According to a new study published in the Annals of Vertebral Subluxation Research entitled “Subluxation Based Chiropractic Care in the Management of Cocaine Addiction: A Case Report”, although subluxation based chiropractic care is not the main course of treatment for addiction, it is postulated that improvement of spinal neural integrity and neural dopaminergic pathway efficiency through chiropractic adjustments may contribute to improved homeostasis, Brain Reward Cascade and Reward Deficiency Syndrome thus allowing the body to express a greater state of well-being and human potential as an outcome.

But if you think this research only applies to a small demographic of the community that some of us don’t want anything to do with – then you may be missing the point of Chiroprac-tic. This research is to do with state of wellbeing and quality of life: Something that everyone needs.

And so outcomes such as increased addiction treatment retention rates and decreases in relapse are postulated after combining non-linear tonal chiropractic care with standard addiction treatment and behaviour modification. Previous randomised, placebo controlled research had measured the positive outcomes when subluxation based chiropractic care was added to the standard rehabilitation mix. This new case study adds a qualitative point of view to this past quantitative proof.

According to Drs Jay Holder and Brandon Shriner, the purpose of chiropractic is to optimize human potential and state of well-being. This objective is primarily realized by the successful adjustment of vertebral subluxation allowing the brain and spinal cord to effectively communicate to the rest of the body creating improved overall nervous system function.

And if you are wondering why I included three seemingly unrelated disorders – crime, depression and addiction – in one sentence, then this case study may help you to comprehend that they are completely interconnected disorders living along a continuum of severity from brain dis-ease to brain disease.

In the study a 63 year old white male presented at the Exodus Treatment Center with a 50 year history of poly substance abuse. He was court ordered to Exodus Treatment Center after a felony conviction for cocaine, violation of probation and eleven failed traditional addiction treatment programs. Cocaine addiction started at age 21 with previous use of alcohol, cannabis, and amphetamines as early as age ten. He had multiple felony convictions and incarcerations for many violations including sales and possession of cocaine and other illicit drugs.

The patient was not reaching therapy goals and performing poorly in standard rehabilitation. Results indicated that traditional addiction treatment was failing to improve cognitive function and or increase the P300 EEG wave amplitude. This was reported to the court. The judge then required the patient to remain in Phase One of treatment and complete a neurophysiologic re-evaluation to develop a more aggressive and comprehensive treatment plan. Therefore, Torque Release Chiropractic (TRT) was added to the treatment plan for an additional eight months to improve addiction treatment outcomes, neurological and behavioural function and to make the care more comprehensive.

After introducing TRT into the residential addiction treatment program milieu, considerable improvement in the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores occurred. Data revealed a continual decrease in both depression and anxiety scores. Patient P300 wave potentials at initial phase of care had showed steady decrease in cognition, attention, cognitive function, and decision making ability. (P300 amplitude in drug-dependent patients is influenced by a complex interaction between CNS pathology that predates and promotes the onset of drug dependence and CNS pathology that should resolve during the process of recovery from drug dependence.) Amazingly the P300 findings started to improve progressively and dramatically once TRT was included.

Comparable thermal and EMG scans were taken at the onset of TRT and new scans were retaken every 30 days. Post EMG amplitude and asymmetry scans show improvement in overall asymmetry and severity of paraspinal muscle activity. Post thermal scans show not only a decrease in overall absolute temperature but side to side differentials as well.

The paper concludes that after approximately eight months of Torque Release Technique at the Exodus Addiction Treatment Center, while being co-managed with traditional drug addiction treatment professionals in a residential setting, the patient had seen improvement in health and vitality as revealed with P300 wave results, Thermal/EMG scans, and ASI scores. The patient is currently living on his own in a 3/4 way house and has been free from cocaine addiction for over two years. The patient has chosen to continue chiropractic care.

To find out about being trained in Torque Release Technique go to http://www.torquerelease.com.au/Torque-Release-Discount.htm

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